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^ 



Teaching Students 
who are 
} Gifted and Talented 



CURRGDHT 

) LC 



3984 

A3 

A333 

1995 

bk.7 



ALBERTA LEARNING CATALOGUING IN PUBLICATION 

Alberta. Alberta Learning. Special Education Branch. 
Teaching students who are gifted and talented. 

(Programming for students with special needs) 
ISBN 0-7732-1801-7 

1 . Special education — Alberta. 2. Gifted children — Education — 
Alberta. I. Title. II. Series: Programming for students with special needs. 



LC3984.2.A3.A333 bk.7 2000 



371.9 



For further information, contact: 

Special Education Branch 

10 Floor, East Devonian Building 

1 1 1 60 Jasper Avenue 

Edmonton, AB T5K 0L2 

Telephone: (780) 422-6326 in Edmonton or 

toll-free in Alberta by dialing 310-0000 

Fax: (780)422-2039 




Ex LIBRIS 

UNIVERSITATIS 

ALBERTENSIS 




This document is intended for: 



Students 




Teachers 


^ 


Administrators 


V 


Counsellors 


S 


Parents 




General Public 





Copyright © 2000, the Crown in Right of Alberta, as represented by the Minister of Learning. 
Alberta Learning, 1 1 160 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T5K 0L2. 

Permission is given by the copyright owner to reproduce the owner's original work for 
educational purposes and on a non-profit basis. Permission to reproduce third party material 
must be received directly from the third party copyright owner. 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF A! I'" ' 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Alberta Learning gratefully acknowledges the many teachers, other 
individuals and groups who have provided advice and feedback over 
the course of the development of Teaching Students who are Gifted 
and Talented, including the following: 

• Calgary Board of Education, the principal writers 

• The Centre for Gifted Education, University of Calgary 

• All the individuals and groups who reviewed the field-test draft 
and provided thoughtful suggestions and comments 

• The staff of the Special Education Branch of Alberta Learning for 
their contribution to the development, production and distribution 
of this document 

• Members of the Special Education Advisory Committee 
representing: 

Alberta Association for Community Living 

Alberta Associations for Bright Children 

Alberta Home and School Councils' Association 

Alberta School Boards Association 

Alberta Society for the Visually Impaired 

Alberta Teachers' Association 

Autism Society of Alberta 

College of Alberta School Superintendents 

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), Alberta Federation 

Learning Disabilities Association of Alberta 

Premier's Council on the Status of Persons with Disabilities 

University of Alberta, Department of Educational Psychology. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 
University of Alberta Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/studentgiftedtalent95albe 



^ INTRODUCTION TO THE SERIES 



Programming for Students with Special Needs is a series developed in 
response to a needs assessment survey conducted by the Special 
Education Branch of Alberta Learning in the spring of 1992. 

The information provided by survey respondents has been used to 
guide the nature and content of the series. The respondents indicated 
the need for practical suggestions about instructional strategies, 
classroom management, preparing individualized program plans and 
understanding the nature of special needs. They also requested 
information about special education resources. 

The following books are included in the series. The information in 
each book is interrelated and can be used to provide instruction to all 
students. 

Book 1 Teaching for Student Differences 

Highlights strategies for differentiating instruction within the regular 
classroom for students who may be experiencing learning or 
behavioural difficulties, or who may be gifted and talented. It 
includes ideas for varying instructional time, the learning 
environment, resources, materials, presentation, assignments and 
assessments to accommodate students with diverse needs. This book 
contains instructional strategies arranged by core subjects as well as 
by categories of differences; e.g., learning disabilities, behaviour 
disorders, and gifted and talented. A variety of useful forms to assist 
teacher planning is found in the appendices. 

Book 2 Essential and Supportive Skills for Students 

with Developmental Disabilities 

Includes: 

• developmental checklists for communication skills; e.g., receptive, 
expressive, social, articulation and vocabulary 

• checklists for gross and fine motor development, including 
colouring, graphics, manuscript printing and cutting 

• charts and checklists which provide a continuum of life skills by 
domain (domestic and family life, personal and social 
development, leisure/recreation/arts, citizenship and community 
involvement, career development) 

• checklists for mathematics, reading and writing to Grade 6 

• an annotated list of teaching resources. 



) 



Book 3 Individualized Program Plans (IPPs) 

Contains a process for IPP development and strategies for involving 
parents. This book provides information on writing long-term goals 
and short-term objectives along with case studies and samples of 
completed IPPs. It addresses transition planning and features forms 
and checklists to assist in planning. 

Book 4 Teaching Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing 

Includes information on the nature of hearing loss and the various 
communication systems which may be used. The book contains 
information on amplification, educational technologies, program 
planning and teaching strategies. 

Book 5 Teaching Students with Visual Impairments 

This resource offers basic information to help provide successful 
school experiences for students who are blind or visually impaired. 
The information in this book addresses: 

• the nature of visual impairment 

• educational implications 

• specific needs 

• instructional strategies 

• the importance of orientation and mobility instruction 

• the use of technology. 

Book 6 Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities (LD) 

This resource provides practical strategies for regular classroom and 
special education teachers. Section I discusses the conceptual model 
and applications of the domain model. Section II includes 
identification and program planning, addressing early identification, 
assessment, learning styles and long-range planning. Section III 
contains practical strategies within specific domains, including 
metacognitive, information processing, communication, academic and 
social/adaptive. Section IV addresses other learning difficulties 
including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol 
syndrome/possible prenatal alcohol-related effects. The appendices 
contain lists of annotated resources, test inventories, support network 
contacts and blackline masters. 



Programming for Students with Special Needs is not intended to be a 
complete authority on the many disciplines associated with the 
education of students with special needs. In providing instruction to 
students with special needs, staff should utilize the support services 
available in their jurisdictions. 



) TABLE OF CONTENTS 



) 



Introduction 1 

Section 1 : Administration of Programs for Students who are Gifted and Talented 3 

Legislation 3 

Alberta Learning Policy and Regulations 4 

District Administration of Programs 5 

School Administration of Programs 1 1 

Conclusion 15 

Section 2: Conceptions of Giftedness 16 

The Emerging Paradigm 16 

Alberta Learning Definition of Giftedness 17 

Conceptions of Giftedness 19 

Introduction 19 

Sidney Marland 20 

Joseph Renzulli 22 

Howard Gardner 24 

Robert Sternberg 28 

Donald Treffinger 29 

Francoys Gagne 30 

Julian Stanley 31 

John Feldhusen 32 

George Betts 33 

Section 3: Identification 34 

Toward an Inclusive Identification Process 34 

Guidelines to Inclusive Identification Processes 35 

Indicators to Assist in Recognizing Intellectual and Affective Characteristics 37 

Intellectual Characteristics 38 

Affective Characteristics 42 

Leadership Characteristics 45 

Characteristics and Behaviours of Young Students who are Gifted 

and Talented 45 

Concerns Related to the Characteristic Strengths Associated with Giftedness 47 

Asynchrony 48 

Difficulties in Recognizing Certain Students who are Gifted 

in the Classroom 49 

Guidance and Counselling Support 50 

Gathering and Recording Many Kinds of Data 51 

Tests 52 

Ratings or Referrals 56 

Products and Accomplishments 59 



Classroom Performance Data 62 

Developing Individualized Program Plans (IPPs) 69 

Transition Planning 70 

IPP Process 70 

General Considerations 73 

Communicating with Parents of a Child who is Gifted 74 

Parent Teacher Conferences 75 

Parent Involvement in the IPP Process 76 

Questions to Help Parents Communicate Effectively with the School 78 

Involving Parents as Volunteers 79 

Completed IPP Samples 80 

Characteristics and Identification Procedures for Underserved Populations 93 

Gifted Females 93 

Gifted-Learning Disabled (GLD) 94 

Gifted Underachievers 95 

Behavioural Problems 97 

Minority Status 97 

Physical and/or Sensory Disability 99 

Highly Gifted 99 

Conclusion 99 

Identification Process Resources 100 

Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual 

and Performing Arts 102 

Guidelines for the Identification of Gifted Students in the Visual 

and Performing Arts 103 

Visually Gifted 104 

Determining Visual Giftedness 105 

Selection and Identification Practices 105 

Classroom Strategies to Encourage Visual Arts Development 106 

Musically Gifted 107 

Determining Musical Giftedness 108 

Classroom Strategies to Encourage Music Development 109 

Giftedness in Drama 1 11 

Inventories and Tests 112 

Classroom Strategies to Encourage Development in Drama 1 13 

Talent in the Psychomotor/Kinesthetic Domain 115 

Characteristics of the Athlete who is Gifted 115 

Instructional Implications 116 

Dance Movement 117 

Curriculum Modification — Differentiated Classroom Strategies for Fine 

Arts 121 

Independent Study 121 

Peer Collaboration 121 

Questioning Techniques 122 



\ Learning Centres 122 

Daily Log/Journal 123 

Use of Computers 123 

Opportunities for Enrichment in the Fine Arts 124 

Private Lessons and Tutors 124 

Artist-in-Residence 124 

Mentorship Programs 124 

Advanced Placement 125 

Galleries and Museums 125 

Community Art Centres 125 

Arts Camps 125 

Summer Programs and Saturday Schools 126 

Magnet Fine Arts School 126 

Arts Propel & Project Zero (Howard Gardner, Harvard University) 126 

Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 127 

Curriculum Modification 129 

Strategies for Instruction 132 

Mentorships 179 

Programming Options 184 

Section 6: Post-modernism and Gifted Education 188 

} A Transformation in Worldview 188 

The Changing Face of Education 189 

The Four R's of Curriculum Planning 189 

Post-modern Connections to Gifted Education 194 

Teachers as Mediators 195 

A Process-oriented Curriculum 197 

Developing Generative Topics 198 

Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning 201 

The Stories We Tell Ourselves: A Sample Generative 

Curriculum Unit 203 

Section 7: Appendices 218 

Section 8: Other Teaching Resources 277 

Section 9: Publishers' Addresses 288 

Section 10: Annotated Test Inventory 291 

Section 11: Support Networks 309 

v Section 12: Endnote References 310 



Section 13: Bibliography 322 

Evaluation and Feedback 347 



INTRODUCTION 



All students have strengths — intellectual (thinking) and affective 
(feeling) — and should be provided opportunities to demonstrate their 
highest level of achievement in all curricular areas. However, some 
students by virtue of outstanding abilities, are capable of exceptional 
performance. Students who are gifted and talented have characteristics 
and needs that are both similar to and different from other learners. 
There is a diversity of characteristics, talents and needs, both within and 
among these students. Given this diversity, students who are gifted and 
talented have special educational needs. It is important that these needs 
be addressed both at home and at school. 

Contemporary theorists view giftedness as the multi-faceted, 
multi-dimensional potential for creative productivity, considering a 
person's accomplishments or attainments over a sustained period of 
time. Evidence indicates that students who display the potential for the 
development of gifted behaviours require differentiated educational 
programs and services beyond those provided by regular programming 
in order to realize their contribution to self and society. 

Effective educational practices for students who are gifted and talented 
include a supportive learning environment, effective programming 
options and services, appropriate curricula which meet diverse needs, 
and effective teaching and learning strategies. 1 

A contemporary approach to gifted education includes the following 
goals. 

• Promote deliberate and systematic efforts in schools to seek, 
recognize, respond to and enhance the development of the strengths, 
talents and sustained interests of students and staff. 

• Support schools" efforts to establish and maintain a culture that 
values, promotes and rewards excellence. 

• Guide school personnel in their efforts to create, support and 
enhance a climate conducive to innovation, and the recognition and 
development of talents among students and staff. 

• Stimulate and support ongoing efforts by schools to recognize 
individuality and promote higher levels of thinking, learning and 
productivity among students and staff, and encourage independent, 
responsible self-direction. 

• Foster ongoing professional development to enable educators to 
expand their abilities to recognize and nurture students' strengths 
and talents. 



GT.l 



• Support and enhance effective use of community resources to 
expand learning opportunities and enrichment for all students. 

• Encourage all staff members to be aware of the academic, personal, 
social and emotional characteristics and needs associated with 
giftedness, and respond positively and effectively to such needs in 
their students. 

• Encourage ongoing dialogue and actions in schools that will lead to 
ambitious visions of their goals and mission, and promote their 
attainment. 

This resource offers information to help provide successful school 
experiences for students who are gifted and talented. It will help 
teachers identify learners' unique combination of strengths, interests 
and needs. Teachers may want to use this information as a foundation 
for shaping everyday lesson planning. 



GT.2 



") 



SECTION 1: ADMINISTRATION 
OF PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS 
WHO ARE GIFTED AND TALENTED 



Education for the gifted 
and talented requires an 
understanding that their 
differences are both real 
and legitimate . . . Like all 

other students, their 

educational expehences 

must be appropriate for 

them. 

Van 

Tassel-Baska, 

1981, p. 5 



This section provides district and school administrators with direction 
in providing required and appropriate education programs for students 
who are gifted and talented. 

The Alberta Government, through the School Act and education policies 
and regulations, requires Alberta school districts to take responsibility 
for the education of students with special needs. The Guide to 
Education for Students with Special Needs (Alberta Education, 1 997) 
states that one category of special needs is gifted and talented. Specific 
references regarding the responsibility for providing appropriate 
educational programming are cited below. 



Legislation 

The School Act (1988) mandates that: 



Every child of school age is entitled to have access in that school year 
to an education program. School Act, section 3. 



A student requiring a special education program is entitled to a program 
appropriate for the student's needs, age and level of educational 
achievement. 



School boards are responsible for educating resident students, 
including those with special needs. School Act, section 28. 



School boards are responsible for determining that a student is in 
need of a special education program. School Act, section 29. 

A board may determine that a student is, by virtue of the student's 
behavioural, communicational, intellectual, learning or physical 
characteristics, or a combination of those characteristics, a student in 
need of a special education program. School Act, section 29(1). 



J 



GT.3 



Alberta Learning Policy and Regulations 

Alberta Learning's mandate is to ensure that Alberta students have the 
opportunity to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to be 
self-reliant, responsible, caring and contributing members of society. 
To fulfill this mandate, the department develops and administers 
legislation, regulations and policies related to the governance, funding 
and delivery of education in the province. 
• "Students with special needs" means: 

- students described in section 29(1) of the Act as being in need of 
special education programs because of their behavioural, 
communicational, intellectual, learning or physical characteristics 
or 

- students who may require specialized health care services or 

- students who are gifted and talented. 
(See Alberta Education, Policy 1 .6.2) 



• 



• 



School authorities are responsible for the: 

- identification, assessment and placement of exceptional students 

- development and implementation of individualized program plans 
(IPPs) 

- evaluation of the individual progress of exceptional students. 
(See Alberta Education, Policy 1 .6.2.) 

School boards are responsible for ensuring that students with 
exceptional needs receive adequate special education programs, have 
access to the most enabling setting that meets their needs, have 
regular opportunities to interact with their peers, enjoy the life of the 
school and participate in local community activities, and have access 
to specialized classes and services as required. (See Alberta 
Education, Policy 1.6.1.) 

School authorities shall develop, keep current and implement written 
policies and procedures regarding education programs for students 
with special needs, consistent with provincial policies and 
procedures. (See Alberta Education, Policy 1.6.2.) 

This section of the manual focuses on ways that both districts and 
schools can carry out the mandate set forth by Alberta Learning to meet 
the needs of students who are gifted and talented. 



• 



GT.4 




District Administration of Programs 

At the district level, school authorities are responsible for providing 
leadership to ensure appropriate educational programming for students 
who are gifted and talented. In order to fulfill this role, a planning effort 
that involves all members of the educational community is required. 
There are a variety of planning processes available to guide 
administrators in developing programs that are appropriate for their 
learning communities. A survey of the literature (Cox et al.,1989; 
Feldhusen et al., 1989; Gallagher & Gallagher, 1994; Kitano & Kirby, 
1986; Treffinger & Sortore, 1992; Van Tassel-Baska, 1981; Van 
Tassel-Baska et al., 1988) reveals several essential components of 
program planning for students who are gifted and talented. These 
components address the following questions. 

WHO should be involved in planning at the district level 
for meeting the needs of students who are gifted 
and talented? 

A first step for district administrators could involve striking a 
committee of people with interest, expertise and/or responsibility in 
educating students who are gifted and talented. Although the 
composition of the committee may differ from one district to another, 
the committee should have enough breadth to represent a cross-section 
of those involved in the education of students throughout the district. 

Representatives on a planning committee could include: 
district administrators 
school administrators 
teachers (at each division level) 
counsellors 

library or media specialists 
school psychologists 
gifted education specialists 
curriculum specialists 
school board representatives 
parents 
students 

community members 
university representatives. 

Keep the committee small enough to be manageable in terms of 
communication, scheduling and opportunities for participation, but 
large enough to represent the interests and concerns of the district, and 
for the work load to be distributed. A larger committee can be divided 
into sub-committees. 

GT.5 






HOW might a planning committee get started? 



Once the committee is established, members need to determine the 
purpose and set goals. Members should review the current School Act 
and existing Alberta Learning policies and guidelines. They should also 
examine the vision and philosophy of the school district. The 
philosophy and purpose of the committee need to be consistent with the 
district vision and philosophy. The goals of the committee will emerge 
from the district's vision. 

Some goals might include: 

• examining what is currently in place for students who are gifted and 
talented 

• conducting a needs assessment to determine the number of potential 
students to be served, the attitudes of teachers toward students who 
are gifted and talented, the types of giftedness to be addressed, 
resource availability and the kinds of inservice staff will need to 
implement a program 

• developing a definition of gifted and talented which reflects the 
provincial definition (See Section 2, page GT.17.) 

• developing an identification process (See Section 3, pages 
GT.35-37.) 

• suggesting administrative or organizational alternatives for the 
purpose of implementing the program 

• exploring and selecting curricular options 

• considering funding and resource support (people and materials) 

• designing an evaluation plan for the delivery of district programs 

• drafting an IPP format, together with a set of criteria for evaluating 
the quality of an IPP 

• building support for gifted and talented education 

• providing a plan for professional development 

• developing an implementation plan indicating the schools or grades 
to be involved, the sequence of steps the system will take to get 
program underway, the timelines for meeting the committee's goals. 



GT.6 



^ 



J 



The district may consider appointing a co-ordinator to manage and 
direct the work of the committee to ensure its effective operation. 
These goals should be considered guidelines and are not prescriptive. 
Each district needs to find a process that will best meet its unique needs 
and optimize available resources. 

It may also be helpful for districts to share their expertise, resources, 
program models and experiences in planning for students who are gifted 
and talented. This way, a broader and more comprehensive range of 
possibilities could emerge. 



a 



WHAT are some administrative/organizational 
alternatives for programming for students who are gifted 
and talented? 



Several organizational options have evolved for educating students who 
are gifted and talented. Each option has advantages and disadvantages 
based on philosophical considerations; acceptance by students, parents, 
communities and teachers; demographics; cost effectiveness and 
availability of resources. Districts may choose to provide a variety or 
combination of these options in order to offer a range of opportunities 
appropriate to the diverse needs of the gifted and talented student 
population. 

Administrative/organizational alternatives include the following. 

• Within the regular classroom: 

- differentiated program in the regular classroom. The student 
receives individualized programming based on an IPP. 
Differentiation strategies can be found in Section 5. 



• 



Within the community school setting (including the regular 
classroom cited above): 

- consultant/specialist assistance — differentiated instruction is 
provided with the help of a specialist in gifted education 

- clustering — grouping several students who are gifted in the same 
classroom and providing appropriate learning experiences 

- resource room/pull-out — students leave the classroom on a 
regular basis for differentiated instruction 

- pull-out for specific subject acceleration — students attend classes 
at a higher grade level in a specific subject area 

- multi-age classroom grouping — students are grouped in a 
classroom of two or more grades 

- interest classes — students attend classes on topics beyond or 
outside the regular curriculum; e.g., seminars 



GT.7 



- community mentor program — students work on an individual 
basis with community members in specific areas of interest (See 
Section 5, pages GT. 179-1 83.) 

- Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate — students 
take university-level courses while attending high school (See 
Section 5, pages GT. 1 85-1 87.) 

- special classes — grouping students who are gifted and talented 
from several classes in the same classroom . . . possibly on a 
scheduled (part-time each week or full-time) basis. 

• Outside the community school: 

- special school; e.g., charter schools — students are placed in a 
congregated setting and provided with differentiated programming 

- magnet school — students receive specialized instruction in 
accordance with the school's established alternate program 
offering; e.g., fine arts 

- summer programs — students attend courses offered by a variety 
of institutions, such as universities, colleges, technical schools, 
museums. 

No one option will meet the diverse needs of all students who are gifted 
and talented. Offering a variety of programming options provides 
flexibility in ensuring that each student has access to the best 
educational opportunities. The needs of individual students may change 
and require different programming alternatives. Each identified student 
who is gifted and talented will have an individualized program plan to 
give direction in program planning and placement. (See Section 3, 
pages GT.69-74, for further information on IPPs.) 






WHAT are considerations for professional development? 



Administrators at the district level need to ensure that teachers and 
administrators at the school level are aware of the district philosophy 
and goals regarding the education of students who are gifted and 
talented. In order to help staff at the school level fulfill district 
requirements, support for professional development needs to be in 
place. 



GT.8 



Consider: 

• personnel to conduct and co-ordinate professional development 

• funding for professional development (teacher release time, 
workshops, consultant fees, supplies, etc.) 

• formats for inservice training (workshops, school professional 
development days, study groups, conferences, university credit 
courses, consultation with support personnel, in-school sharing of 
expertise, etc.) 

• timelines for provision of identified staff development needs 

• evaluation processes to ensure that professional development is 
consistent with changing needs of the district. 

Every district should consider having a formalized professional 
development plan that reflects these factors. 



a 



HOW will programs be evaluated? 



The district evaluation plan determines to what extent the goals and 
objectives for addressing the diverse needs of students who are gifted 
and talented are being accomplished. Both the evaluation process and 
results will identify areas of success as well as provide the basis for 
recommendations for improvement. Effective evaluation includes the 
following. 

• Make an evaluation component an integral part of the initial program 
design. The purpose for evaluation should be clearly understood by 
everyone involved before the evaluation process is begun. 

• State clearly the goals and objectives which determine the type of 
data to be collected. 

• Collect ongoing data which provide information for the purpose of 
decision making, both formative and summative. 

• Consider all aspects, such as identification, programming options, 
student outcomes, resources, professional development, etc. Also 
consider the concerns of the various people involved: students, 
parents, teachers and administrators. 

• Seek input from students, parents, teachers, school and district 
administrators, resource personnel, board and community members 
according to areas of involvement. 



GT.9 



• Designate the people responsible for co-ordinating and carrying out 
evaluation. 

• State timelines. 

• Communicate information and results to all stakeholders. 

• Be committed to using the information to improve programming. 

There are many evaluation models which can be applied to gifted and 
talented programming. Districts may refer to Callahan (1993), Davis & 
Rimm (1989), Maker (1986), Renzulli (1994) and Treffinger & Sortore 
( 1 992) for further information. 



3 



HOW might support for gifted and talented programming 
be developed? 



. . . seeking and 
implementing solutions 
that attempt to meet the 
needs of gifted students 

[should be] within a 
context of meeting the 
needs of all students. 

Sapon-Shevin, 
1996, p. 198 



District administrators need to ensure that programming for giftedness 
is an integral part of the total education plan for the jurisdiction and not 
a separate, add-on component. 

Some ways for districts to build support for gifted and talented 
programming initiatives include the following. 

• Communicate to parents and community the commitment to support 
the improvement of education for the diverse needs of all students, 
including the gifted and talented. 

• Promote the awareness and understanding that providing for the 
needs of students with special needs benefits all students. 

• Ensure that parents and other community members are involved in 
the planning process for meeting the needs of students who are gifted 
and talented. 

• Encourage parental and community involvement as volunteers, 
mentors, field trip sponsors, guest speakers, etc. (See Section 3, 
page GT.79, for suggestions for involving parents as volunteers.) 

• Involve teachers, parents and community members in the evaluation 
of gifted programming. 

• Work with universities to ensure that strategies for teaching students 
who are gifted and talented become an essential component of 
general teacher education programs. This way, the regular classroom 
teacher gains the skills needed to modify instruction relative to 
students' individual learning needs, including the gifted and talented. 



GT.10 



^ 



) 



a 



HOW are students who are identified as gifted 
and talented reported to Alberta Learning? 



School boards are required to report the numbers of students who are 
identified as gifted and talented to the Alberta Learning. Educational 
Information Exchange. Guidelines on reporting procedures are 
provided to school boards annually in the Student Information System 
User 's Guide. 



3 



HOW are programs for students w ho are gifted 
and talented funded? 



Funding for students with mild or moderate disabilities, and those who 
are gifted and talented is included in the Basic Instruction funding. 
School boards and schools are expected to use the designated special 
education portion of the Basic Instruction funding to provide programs 
and services for students who are gifted and talented. 

School boards are expected to pool all special education funds and 
appropriately reallocate them to schools to support special education 
programs as needed. School boards are not expected to allocate 
funding on the same basis as they receive it from Alberta Learning. It is 
recognized that individual per student costs may vary widely and 
therefore it is the school jurisdiction's responsibility to ensure that 
special education funds are allocated fairly and equitably. 



J 



Be sure to share 

information about the 

gifted program within the 

context of meeting needs 

of all students in the 

school and build support 

for its activities as one 

would any other program 

which promotes 

excellence in your 

school. 

Hultgren, 1990, 
P- 7 



School Administration of Programs 

At the school level, provision for students who are gifted and talented 
should be consistent with planning that has taken place at the district 
level. Every school is a unique learning community that strives to 
create the best education environment for all its members. The 
following questions may be helpful in guiding schools in this process. 






WHAT steps does the school have to take to meet 
the needs of students who are gifted and talented? 



It is the responsibility of school administrators to establish a clear 
direction for how the school is going to meet the needs of students who 
are gifted and talented. This direction will be in accordance with the 
policies set forth by Alberta Learning and the school district. Each 



GT.ll 



school should have a statement expressing its commitment to meeting 
the diverse needs of students, including the gifted and talented. In many 
schools, this statement is developed collaboratively with staff, parents 
and community as part of the yearly school plan. Schools will then 
want to consider: 

• determining who is responsible for co-ordinating gifted and talented 
programs; e.g., classroom teacher, resource teacher, consultant, 
school administrator 

• identifying students who are gifted and talented (see Section 3) 

• developing IPPs for identified students 

• implementing differentiated programming to meet student needs; 
e.g., models, strategies (see Sections 3, 4 and 5) 

• accessing resources and support for classroom teachers 

• providing professional development 

• evaluating individual student growth (as part of the IPP) 

• evaluating various gifted and talented programming options at the 
school level 

• planning for continuous improvement 

• celebrating success 

• communicating with parents, community members and the district as 
part of the annual school report. 



SI 



WHERE will the school obtain support for implementing 
programs for students who are gifted? 



Schools may obtain support from a variety of sources, such as: 

• district support personnel (gifted education specialists, psychologists, 
specialists, curriculum consultants, media specialists) 

• universities and colleges 

• district resource centres; e.g., public libraries, museums, professional 
libraries 

• parents 

• community; e.g., business agencies, professionals, associations 

• student expertise 



GT.12 



^\ • electronic resources; e.g., Internet 

• cultural centres; e.g., symphonies, art galleries, ethnic groups. 

^^ HOW » i 1 1 the school work with parents 
and the community? 

Parents and community members should be viewed as productive 
partners in the education of students who are gifted and talented. Ways 
that schools can work with parents and community members include: 

• keeping parents and community members informed about provisions 
and programming for students with special needs 

• providing parent education: learning with and from parents 

• asking parents to serve on advisory committees 

• having parents and community members share their expertise by 
organizing individual projects, mentorships, special interest groups, 
field trips, guest speakers 

• making parents and community members aware of support 
resources, such as counselling, associations, books, etc. 



) 



a 



WHAT are desirable characteristics of teachers of gifted 
and talented? 



One important factor in the education of all students, including the 
gifted and talented, is the teacher. The following are characteristics of 
successful teachers of the gifted (Feldhusen et al., 1989; Hultgren, 
1990;Kitano&Kirby, 1986): 

• are highly knowledgeable about teaching and learning 

• are enthusiastic life-long learners with a desire for intellectual 
growth 

• are self-confident, unthreatened by strong learners 

• are flexible, creative risk takers, tolerant of ambiguity 

• strive for excellence in self and others 

• have intuitive and emotional rapport with students 

• have a sense of humour 

• serve as facilitators as well as directors of learning 

• have wide background knowledge and specific areas of expertise 

GT.13 




• have a belief in and understanding of individual differences 

• are positive 

• are well-organized, systematic. 

WHAT professional development could be organized 
at the school level? 

Professional development is an essential component of effective 
programming for students who are gifted and talented. It should extend 
beyond staff to include parents and community members, and will 
emerge from both individual needs and whole school/community needs. 
Professional development activities evolve as part of the school's 
improvement plan and could take a variety of forms, such as: 

• capitalizing on staff strengths and expertise 

• using this manual to develop awareness 

• accessing resource personnel, such as consultants 

• disseminating of resource material by the district co-ordinator 

• acquiring information from videos, books, articles, etc. 

• providing opportunities for teachers to plan and team together 

• attending gifted and talented conferences, such as the Society for the 
Advancement of Gifted Education (SAGE) conference 

• joining professional associations, such as the Alberta Teachers' 
Association's Gifted and Talented Education Council (GTEC) 

• subscribing to professional journals, such as Roeper Review, Gifted 
Child Today 

• participating in inservice courses offered by the district, universities, 
associations, etc. 

• participating in school-based activities, such as professional 
development days, noon-hour sessions, study groups, etc. 



GT.14 



^ 



Conclusion 

Meeting the needs of students who are gifted and talented is the 
responsibility of school districts and individual schools in Alberta. The 
process is complex and challenging because of the necessity of 
involving effective representation of all stakeholders, and because of 
the diversity of students, teachers, administrators and available 
resources. It is the intention of this resource to provide educators with 
useful guidelines for developing programs and strategies to meet this 
challenge. 



) 



J 



GT.15 



SECTION 2: CONCEPTIONS 
OF GIFTEDNESS 



The purpose of this section is to provide broad, conceptual perspectives 
related to the evolving definition of giftedness and talent. 



The Emerging Paradigm 

What is meant by "giftedness"" or "talent" varies. The definition of 
giftedness is culture-bound and reflects those dimensions that a culture 
values (Gallagher, 1985). 

Traditionally, giftedness has been equated with a high IQ score, simple 
quantitative index or cut-off point. In the late 1960s, concern about 
artistic excellence, creativity and specific academic aptitude emerged. 
By the 1980s, increased interest in the affective domain, multiple 
intelligences and talent development further broadened the conception. 
Society's view of human talents and abilities has broadened 
considerably in the last three decades (Treffinger & Sortore, 1992). 

The emerging paradigm views giftedness as having multiple forms and 
as being diagnostic, developmental and process-oriented rather than 
stable, unchangeable and equal to a score on an intelligence test. In the 
emerging paradigm, identification is based on performance rather than 
on test results. It recognizes the nature and importance of gifts and 
talents in the arts, vocational domains, social-interpersonal, 
psychomotor as well as academic-intellectual domains of giftedness. A 
core belief is that context is crucial to the development of giftedness and 
talent, which may not be expressed or developed without special 
intervention or opportunities. 



GT.16 



Areas for Talent Identification 



Academic - 




Artistic 


Intellectual 




• Dance 


• Science 




• Music 


•Math 




• Drama 


• English 




• Graphics 


• Social Studies 




• Sculpture 


■ Languages 




• Photography 




^^ Talent ^^ 


► 




Development in 






^■A Schools ^^k 


► 


Vocational - 


Interpersonal - 


Technical 




Social 


• Home Economics 




• Leadership 


• Trade-Industrial 




• Care Giving 


• Business-Office 




• Sales 


• Agriculture 




• Human Services 


• Computers and 






Technology 







For the purposes of this manual, the terms "gifted" and "talented" are used 
interchangeably. The term "high-potential student" refers to those learners 
who have, for a variety of reasons, not as yet demonstrated their gifts and 
talents through formal identification procedures. 

Alberta Learning Definition of Giftedness 

In consideration of the emerging paradigm in the area of gifted 
education, Alberta Learning has adopted the following definition. 



Giftedness is exceptional potential and/or performance across a 


wide range of abilities 


in one or more of the following areas: 


• general intellectual 




• specific academic 




• creative thinking 




• social 




• musical 




• artistic 




• kinesthetic. 





GT.17 



General intellectual ability is characterized by a capacity to acquire 
information rapidly and think abstractly. Students with general 
intellectual ability can acquire information quickly and easily recall 
what they have learned. As a result, they develop large vocabularies 
and a wide range of general information. In addition to this capacity, 
students with general intellectual abilities are interested in general 
principles or "how and why things work." They are capable of being 
intensely absorbed in what they do. They are easily bored by routine 
tasks. Some intellectually gifted students may be perfectionistic or 
extremely emotionally sensitive. Intellectually gifted students are best 
identified through the use of psychometric measures, such as 
intelligence tests and benefit from a combination of acceleration, 
thinking skills enrichment and independent research activities. 

Students with specific academic aptitudes have strength in a particular 
subject, such as mathematics. These students are best identified 
through subject-matter tests meant for older students. They benefit 
through opportunities for subject-specific content acceleration and 
research in their passion areas. 

Creative thinking is the ability to come up with many possible ideas to 
given situations. Students with this particular gift are best recognized 
through measures of divergent thinking ability which assess a student's 
fluency, flexibility and originality of ideas. These students benefit from 
opportunities for creative problem solving, and programs such as the 
Future Problem-Solving Program and Odyssey of the Mind. 

Social talents include those gifted in leadership and interpersonal 
communication skills. They are best identified through observations of 
interactions in social situations and benefit from opportunities for social 
interactions, such as debates, mock judicial proceedings and model 
parliaments. 

Musical ability and intelligence are closely related. Students who are 
gifted in music have an intense love and fascination for music. The 
identification process focuses on performance, composition and 
appreciation as they relate to choral and instrumental categories. 
Observation of performance and analysis of composition by qualified 
teachers are first steps in the identification of students gifted in music. 

Artistic talents include those gifted in the visual and performing arts. 
Students are best identified through evaluations of their artistic products 
by experts. Components of ratings include expression and technical 
competence. These students benefit by opportunities to pursue their 
talent areas. 



GT.18 



Kinesthetic talents include those gifted in such areas as athletics and 
dance. Students are best identified through evaluations of their 
performance by experts. These students benefit from opportunities to 
pursue their talent areas. 

While leadership has not been singled out among the abilities included 
in the definition of giftedness, it is not to be overlooked. Generally, the 
characteristics associated with leadership ability (see page GT.45) are 
similar to those attributes of students with outstanding social talents and 
strengths in creative thinking. Such students need specially planned 
educational opportunities to exercise and enhance their talents. 



Conceptions of Giftedness 
Introduction 

Current definitions of giftedness emphasize multiple forms of 
giftedness, diversity, inclusiveness, excellence in performance and the 
importance of context. 

This section highlights nine theoretical models that are important 
considerations in serving students who are gifted and talented. These 
models reflect the beliefs and values of theorists recognized for their 
expertise in the area of giftedness. The models are presented in the 
chronological order in which they developed. They are presented as 
guides for schools to draw from when developing programs for students 
who are gifted. 

Implications for schools include the following: 

• draw on many models according to circumstances and goals 

• offer a variety of different activities and services in response to 
varied student needs, talents, interests and strengths. 

The nine theoretical models are summarized in the charts that follow. 
These charts also summarize the identification procedures and 
programming options for each model. Each model also identifies a 
resource that teachers can access for more in-depth information. 



GT.19 



Sidney Marland 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



In 1972, Sidney Marland, then U.S. Commissioner of Education, presented his committee's definition of 
giftedness to the U.S. Congress. In addition to high intelligence, this definition includes both demonstrated 
achievement or potential for achievement in specific academic areas, creative thinking, the fine arts and 
leadership. Marland' s definition follows. 

Gifted and talented children are those identified by professionally qualified persons who by virtue of 
outstanding abilities are capable of high performance. These are children who require differentiated 
educational programs and services beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order 
to realize their contribution to self and society. Children capable of high performance include those with 
demonstrated achievement and/or potential ability in any one of the following areas: 

• general intellectual ability • leadership ability 

• specific academic aptitude • visual and performing arts 

• creative or productive thinking • psychomotor ability. 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



• general intellectual ability 

- individual psychological assessment 

- group psychological assessment 
(administered off level) 

- standardized achievement tests 

- teacher ratings 

- parent ratings 

• specific academic aptitude 

- off-level subject specific achievement tests 



• creative or productive thinking 

- measures of divergent thinking 

- scales for measuring creative characteristics 

- teacher observations 

• leadership ability 

- scales for rating leadership characteristics 

- leadership skills inventory 

• visual and performing arts 

- teacher observations 

- specialist observations 



Programming Options 



• acceleration by subject 

• grade skipping 

• enrichment of regular curriculum; e.g., 

- tiered assignments 

- independent study 

- open-ended questioning techniques 

- small group investigations 

• acceleration by subject 

• mentorships. tutorials 

• enrichment of regular curriculum 

• cluster grouping 

• divergent thinking skills 

• creative problem-solving skills 

• Future Problem-Solving Program 

• Odyssey of the Mind 

• leadership training programs 

• debating strategies 

• mentorships 

• individual and small group instruction 



GT.20 



Identification Procedures 
(cont'd) 



psychomotor ability 

- teacher observations 

- specialist observations 



Programming Options 
(cont'd) 



• individual and small group 

• mentorships 



See Education of the Gifted and Talented, Volume I — Report to the Congress of the United States by the 
U.S. Commissioner of Education (1972) by S. P. Marland, Jr., Washington, DC: U.S. Government 
Printing Office. 



GT.21 



^ 



Joseph Renzulli 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Renzulli says that gifted behaviour involves interaction of three basic clusters of human traits: above 
average abilities, high levels of task commitment and high levels of creativity. By above average ability, 
Renzulli's model focuses on students in the top 1 5 per cent of intellectual aptitude. Renzulli's concept of 
task commitment encompasses several characteristics: a learner's ability to take energy and concentrate it 
on a specific task; e.g., a problem situation, a creative project, a research project; persistence in reaching a 
goal; drive to achieve; enthusiasm and integration toward a goal when the individual is involved in work of 
his or her own choosing. Creativity, as defined by Renzulli, relates to a person's ability to produce original, 
novel and unique ideas or products. 

The interaction of these three basic clusters of human traits may result in gifted behaviours in general 
performance areas, such as mathematics, philosophy, religion or visual arts; or in performance areas as 
specific as cartooning, mapmaking, playwriting, advertising or agricultural research. 




Renzulli's model for educating the gifted, now called the Schoolwide Enrichment Model, is based on his 
1978 Three Ring Conception of Giftedness. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



Status information — both objective and 
subjective in nature 

• individual psychological assessment or 
group psychological assessment (administered 
off level) 

• teacher nomination Scales for Rating the 
Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students 
(Renzulli, Smith et al.) 

• interest inventories 

• learning style inventories 



Programming Options 



• compacting the regular curriculum 

• Type I Enrichment (general exploratory 
activities) 

• Type II Enrichment (group training activities) 

• Type III Enrichment (individual/small-group 
investigation of real problems) 



GT.22 



Identification Procedures 
(cont'd) 



Action information 

• teacher observation of the type of dynamic 
interactions that take place when a student 
becomes excited about a particular topic, area 
of study, issue, event or form of creative 
expression 



Programming Options 
(cont'd) 



See The Schoohvide Enrichment Model: A How-To Guide for Educational Excellence (2 nd edition) (1997) 
by J. S. Renzulli & S. M. Reis, Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press, Inc. 



GT.23 



Howard Gardner 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Gardner (1983) refers to human cognitive competence as a set of abilities, talents or mental skills which he 
calls intelligences. He defines intelligence as an ability or set of abilities that permits an individual to solve 
problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting. Multiple intelligence 
theory supports a pluralistic view of intelligence and challenges the notion of general intelligence on which 
most current models of intelligence are based. 

Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences proposes eight intelligences: 

Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence: The ability to use words effectively both orally and in writing; e.g., writer, 
orator. 

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The ability to use numbers effectively and to see logical relationships 
and patterns; e.g., mathematician, scientist, computer programmer. 

Visual-Spatial Intelligence: The ability to visualize and to orient oneself in the world; e.g.. guide, hunter, 
architect, artist. 

Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform and express musical 
forms; e.g.. composer, musician. 

Bodily- Kinesthetic Intelligence: The ability to use one's body to express ideas, to make things with hands 
and to develop physical skills; e.g.. actor, craftsperson. athlete. 

Interpersonal Intelligence: The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, 
motivations and feelings of other people; e.g., counsellor, political leader. 

Intrapersonal Intelligence: Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that 
knowledge; e.g., psychotherapist, religious leader. 

Naturalist Intelligence: The ability to identify and appreciate various categories of flora and fauna. 

Gardner says that giftedness results from inborn abilities in interaction with an appropriately supportive 
environment. He assumes that the majority of children have some talent area or intelligence which can be 
developed through focused curriculum attention. He avoids identifying children as gifted, favouring instead 
to use diagnostic information to determine strengths that can be used to develop appropriate curriculum. 

Gardner believes that schools traditionally value verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence, 
which hinders learning for students for whom these are not the dominant intelligences. Gardner says that a 
variety of approaches to learning should be used and that assessment should be conducted within the 
context of the natural learning environment. 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



GT.24 






Identification Procedures 



Programming Options 



Verbal-Linguistic 

• individual intelligence test (verbal battery) or 
group cognitive abilities test (verbal-battery) 
administered off level 

• standardized individual or group achievement 
test (reading/written language sub-tests) 
administered off level 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys or inventories (see Appendix 1, pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• teacher-made tests or assignments 

• teacher observation 

• student portfolios 



Logical-Mathematical 

• individual intelligence test (arithmetic sub-tests, 
non-verbal/performance battery sub-tests) or 
group cognitive abilities test (quantitative 
battery) administered off level 

• standardized individual or group achievement 
test (math sub-tests) administered off level 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1 , pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• teacher-made tests or assignments 

• teacher observation 

• student portfolios 



Acceleration through: 
tiered assignments 
course advancement 
concurrent enrollment 
Advanced Placement programs 
curriculum compacting 
flexible skills grouping 
continuous progress 
out-of-level testing/challenge exams 

Enrichment through: 
high-level questioning 
Junior Great Books 
Odyssey of the Mind 
simulations 

Future Problem-Solving Program 
mentorships 
interest centres/groups 
interdisciplinary studies 
International Baccalaureate courses 
creative thinking/problem-solving exercises 
critical thinking/decision-making exercises 
individual/small-group investigations 
contests, competitions 

Acceleration through: 
tiered assignments 
course advancement 
concurrent enrollment 
curriculum compacting 
flexible skills grouping 
Advanced Placement programs 
continuous progress 
out-of-level testing/challenge exams 

Enrichment through: 
high-level questioning 
Artifact Box Exchange 
Odyssey of the Mind 
Future Problem-Solving Program 
interdisciplinary studies 
International Baccalaureate program 
critical thinking/decision-making exercises 
contests, competitions, tournaments 
individual/small-group investigations 



GT.25 



") 



) 



Identification Procedures 
(cont'd) 



Visual-Spatial 

• individual intelligence test (non- 
verbal/performance battery, abstract/visual 
reasoning sub-tests) or group cognitive abilities 
test (non-verbal battery) administered off level 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1 , pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• adjudicated art exhibitions 

• teacher/specialist observations 

• student portfolios 



Musical-Rhythmic 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1 , pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• performances 

• teacher/specialist observations 

• student portfolios 



Programming Options 
(cont'd) 



Acceleration through: 

• concurrent enrollment 

• Advanced Placement programs 

• tiered assignments 

• course advancement 

• continuous progress 

Enrichment through: 

• art exhibitions, contests 

• mentorships 

• creative thinking/visualization exercises 

• extracurricular offerings/summer programs 

• museum programs 

• interdisciplinary studies 

Acceleration through: 

• concurrent enrollment 

• Advanced Placement programs 

• tiered assignments 

• course advancement 

• continuous progress 

Enrichment through: 

• performances, competitions 

• mentorships 

• field trips 

• interdisciplinary studies 

• extracurricular offerings/summer programs 

• music classes 



Bodily-Kinesthetic 

• multiple intelligence rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1 . pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• performances, exhibitions 

• teacher/specialist observations 

• student portfolios 



Acceleration through: 

• concurrent enrollment 

• course advancement 

• tiered assignments 

Enrichment through: 

• performing arts productions 

• contests, competitions, tournaments 

• Odyssey of the Mind 

• mentorships 

• extracurricular offerings 

• interdisciplinary studies 



GT.26 



Identification Procedures 
(cont'd) 



Interpersonal 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1, pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• teacher/counsellor observations 

• student portfolios 



Intrapersonal 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1, pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• teacher/counsellor observations 

• student portfolios 

Naturalist 

• multiple intelligences rating scales, profiles, 
surveys, inventories (see Appendix 1 , pages 
GT.2 19-221) 

• teacher/specialist observations 

• student portfolios 



Programming Options 
(cont'd) 



Enrichment through: 

• school/community service 

• leadership training 

• creative thinking/problem-solving exercises 

• co-operative learning activities 

• critical thinking/decision-making exercises 

• mentorships 

• simulations 

• interdisciplinary studies 

Enrichment through: 

• independent study 

• critical thinking/decision-making exercises 

• mentorships 

• learning contracts/management plans 



Acceleration through: 

• concurrent enrollment 

• tiered assignments 

• Advanced Placement programs 

• course advancement 

• out-of-level testing/challenge exams 

Enrichment through: 

• independent study 

• field studies 

• critical thinking exercises 

• mentorships 

• interdisciplinary studies 



See Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983) by H. Gardner, New York, NY: Basic 
Books, Inc. and Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 2 1st Century (1999) by H. Gardner, 
New York, NY: Basic Books. 



GT.27 



Robert Sternberg 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Sternberg says that giftedness cannot possibly be captured by a single number. He broadened the definition 
of giftedness through his Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence which identifies three kinds of giftedness: 

Analytic Giftedness: Giftedness in analytic skills involves being able to dissect a problem and understand 
its parts. 

Synthetic Giftedness: Synthetic giftedness is seen in people who are insightful, intuitive, creative or just 
adept at coping with relatively novel situations. 

Practical Giftedness: Practical giftedness involves applying analytical or synthetic ability to everyday 
pragmatic situations. 6 

Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test is in the process of being developed. 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



• analytical abilities are assessed by having 
students define unknown words from context 
cues 

• synthetic abilities are assessed through the use 
of novel, verbal reasoning problems 

• practical abilities are assessed by recognizing 
fallacies in advertisements and planning 
navigational routes 



Programming Options 



• opportunities to use analytic abilities 

• opportunities to use synthetic abilities 

• opportunities to use practical abilities 



Until the Triarchic Abilities Test becomes available, teachers may wish to design opportunities for students 
to demonstrate analytic, synthetic and practical abilities, and observe their performance. 

See "A Triarchic View of Giftedness: Theory and Practice" by R. Sternberg, in Handbook of Gifted 
Education (2 nd edition) (1997), by N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (eds.), Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & 
Bacon. 



GT.28 



Donald Treffinger 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Treffinger acknowledges the rising concerns that the traditional definition of giftedness has spawned. 
Among the numerous limitations of the traditional view, Treffinger highlights the importance of 
understanding that the dimensions of ability are not "fixed and predetermined, absolutely present or absent 
in any person over time and in all circumstances" (Treffinger, 1991). Similar to Renzulli, Treffinger defines 
giftedness as the interaction of above average ability, creativity and task commitment. Treffinger has also 
collaborated with John Feldhusen on the Talent Identification Model (Treffinger & Feldhusen, 1980). 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



• de-emphasize selection of students; focus on 
expanded search for the unique characteristics 
or indicators of behaviour that can be related to 
instructional planning. Assessment must be a 
qualitative process, not merely a quantitative or 
statistical approach to decision making ("NOT 
inclusion/exclusion) 

• document characteristics (teacher observation) 
(portfolios of student work) 

• individual assessments 

• group assessments 

• standardized achievement tests 

• grades 

• parent referral 

• peer referral 

• teacher referral 

• self-nomination 



Programming Options 



individualized basics 

appropriate enrichment 

effective acceleration 

independent (individual or small group) self- 
directed study 

personal and social growth through reflective 
writing; discussion groups that address social, 
interpersonal needs 

career and futures: career guidance sessions, 
mentorships, work experiences in area of 
interest 



See The Programming for Giftedness Series (three volumes) (1992) by D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative Learning and "Talent Recognition and Development: Successor to Gifted 
Education," (1996) by D. J. Treffinger & J. F. Feldhusen, Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 19, pp. 
181-193. 



GT.29 



Francoys Gagne 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Gagne (1995) distinguishes between giftedness and talent in his differentiated model of giftedness and 
talent. He says giftedness refers to high natural, partly inborn abilities which develop naturally in the course 
of daily activities. Talent refers to a high level of performance in systematically developed skills in a 
particular field of human endeavour; skills that require considerable training, learning and practice to 
master. 



) 



Gagne identifies four aptitude domains representing giftedness: intellectual, creative, socio-affective and 
sensorimotor; and as many fields of talent as there are fields of human activity; e.g., academics, trades and 
craft, technology, arts, social action, business, athletics and sports. Catalysts (positive or negative impact) 
for talent development include: motivation, temperament/personality and environmental factors 
(surroundings, persons, understanding, events). 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



observation of ease of learning in each of the 
aptitude domains 



Programming Options 



• systematic learning, training and practice in 
areas of giftedness (both within and beyond 
school) to develop talent 

• accent on curriculum compacting and 
acceleration to respond to naturally faster 



learning pace 



See "Towards a Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent" by F. Gagne, in Handbook of Gifted 
Education (1991), edited by N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis. 



GT.30 



Julian Stanley 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Since 1971, Julian Stanley and colleagues in the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at 
Johns Hopkins University have pioneered a domain-specific approach to giftedness. Recognizing that a 
composite score on a measure of general intelligence masks specific areas of strength, this approach 
advocates focusing on talent development in specific domains, such as mathematics, languages and social 
studies. 

Gifts in each specific domain are identified through the use of measures in each domain that differentiate 
among students. This is typically accomplished by having students take measures meant for older students. 
For example, mathematically gifted seventh graders are identified through administration of the 
mathematics portion of the Scholastic Aptitude Test, which is usually administered to university -bound 
eleventh and twelfth graders. Verbally gifted seventh graders would be identified by their performance on 
the verbal portion of the Scholastic Aptitude Test. 

Once identified, students are encouraged to develop their domain-specific talents by participating in a 
variety of accelerative options, including: university coursework, special academic summer courses, special 
schools. Advanced Placement courses, fast-paced classes and grade skipping. Numerous research studies 
have documented the effectiveness of this approach. Students benefit academically and adjust socially and 
emotionally to these accelerative experiences. 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



• Step 1 : top three-to-five per cent on in-grade 
level standardized test 

• Step 2: administration of standardized test 
three-to-four years above grade level 



Programming Options 



• smorgasbord of accelerative opportunities 

• early entrance to university, especially in 
special programs for precocious youth 

• part-time university study 

• distance learning university courses 

• advanced placement 

• fast-paced classes in domain using Diagnostic 
Testing Prescriptive Instruction Model 

• subject matter acceleration 

• grade skipping 

• special state-supported high schools 



See Mathematical Talent: Discovery, Description, and Development {\91 4) by J. C. Stanley, D. P. Keating 
& L. H. Fox (eds.), Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 



GT.31 



^ 



John Feldhusen 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Talent Identification and Development in Education 

John Feldhusen has pioneered the Talent Identification and Development in Education (TIDE) model. This 
approach attempts to foster talent development in all youth rather than focusing on a small percentage of 
students who have met the arbitrary cut-off score criterion often used to label students as gifted. The 
approach recognizes that talent development involves a combination of aptitudes, acquired knowledge and 
personality characteristics. 

Four broad areas for talent development in schools have been identified: academic-intellectual, artistic, 
vocational-technical and interpersonal-social. The TIDE model focuses on using a variety of assessment 
techniques to determine a student's profile, and talent strengths and weaknesses. The assessment 
information is used to develop an individualized growth plan for each student. 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



• profile of strengths and weaknesses derived 
from multiple sources of data, including 
standardized tests, ratings and student 
performance 



Programming Options 



individually designed program plan to facilitate 
talent development 



See Talent Identification and Development in Education (TIDE) (1992) by J. F. Feldhusen, Sarasota, FL: 
Center for Creative Learning. 



GT.32 



George Betts 



♦ 



Concept of Giftedness 



Betts (1985) developed the Autonomous Learner Model to meet the cognitive, social and emotional needs 
of gifted and talented students (Betts & Knapp, 1981). As its name implies, the goal of the autonomous 
learner model is to have participants emerge as independent, self-directed learners. The model consists of 
experiences centered around five dimensions: orientation, individual development, enrichment activities, 
seminars and in-depth study. The orientation dimension provides opportunities for students to understand 
the nature of giftedness, develop self-awareness, promote group cohesion, and understand the opportunities 
and responsibilities regarding participation in the program. The individual development dimension provides 
opportunities for students to explore creative problem solving, self-concept development, interpersonal 
communication skills and career development. The enrichment activities dimension provides opportunities 
for learning content through explorations, investigations, cultural activities, service activities and adventure 
trips. The seminar dimension provides opportunities for seminars on futuristic, controversial and interesting 
topics. The in-depth study dimension provides opportunities for a learner to conduct, present and evaluate 
an intensive study of a passion area. 

Suggested identification procedures and programming options follow. 



♦ 



Identification Procedures 



• Intellectually Gifted 

high IQ or high achievement 

• Creatively Gifted 

high divergent thinking abilities 

• Talented 

specific area of talent, such as math or music 



Programming Options 



orientation dimension 
individual development dimension 
enrichment activities dimension 
seminar dimension 
in-depth study dimension 



See Autonomous Learner Model: Optimizing Ability (revised, expanded and updated edition) (1999) by 
G. T. Betts & J. K. Kercher , Greeley, CO: Autonomous Learning Publications and Specialists. 



GT.33 



^ 



SECTION 3: IDENTIFICATION 



If the gates to excellence 
are opened and closed only 
as a function of the abilities 
typically considered, we run 
the risk of opening them to 

people who will not be 

particularly outstanding in 

their chosen career, and of 

closing these gates on some 

of the most able children, 

who will be blocked from 

making contributions that 

they potentially could make 



Sternberg & 
Clinkenbeard, 

1995, 
pp. 255-256 



J 



Identification is the process of recognizing students' needs, strengths, 
talents and interests, in order to design effective ways to nurture and 
enhance their potentials. Before teachers can develop, implement and 
evaluate programming, there must be flexible, inclusive and diagnostic 
screening, and identification procedures in place. Identification must be 
compatible with both the definition applied and the services to be 
offered. 



Toward an Inclusive Identification Process 

Many researchers and practitioners have called attention to the need for 
a paradigm shift and changes in identification procedures (Feldhusen. 
1996; Feldman, 1 99 1 ; Gardner, 1993; Gubbins, 1996; Maker. 1996; 
Renzulli, 1995; Sternberg & Clinkenbeard, 1995; Sternberg & Zhang. 
1995; Treffinger & Feldhusen, 1996; Treffinger & Sortore, 1992; Van 
Tassel-Baska, 1995). 

This section focuses on learner characteristics and identification 
procedures as they relate to students who are gifted and talented, 
including high-potential, high-risk students and gifted minority 
students. Contents cover: 

• guidelines to inclusive identification processes 

• indicators to assist in recognizing intellectual and affective 
characteristics 

• characteristics and behaviours of young students who are gifted and 
talented 

• concerns related to the characteristic strengths associated with 
giftedness 

• gathering and recording many kinds of data: formal identification of 
students who are gifted and talented 

• developing individualized program plans (IPPs) 

• communicating with parents of a child who is gifted 

• parent involvement in the IPP process 

• questions to help parents communicate effectively with the school 

• involving parents as volunteers 

• characteristics and identification procedures for underserved 
populations 

• conclusion 

• identification process resources. 



GT.34 



Guidelines to Inclusive Identification Processes 

Identification is a linking process which must be compatible with the 
definition applied and the services to be offered. It is inconsistent to 
have in place a multidimensional definition of giftedness and talent 
along with a single criterion identification procedure for programming 
which primarily addresses a single (but different) area of talent or 
strength. For example, if the definition adopted by a school system is 
the one recommended by Alberta Learning, and the identification 
procedure is the use of a standardized IQ test for student placement in a 
creative writing program, then both identification and programming are 
inappropriate. 

Too often, narrow, fixed identification procedures which focus only on 
selection or placement, attempt to adapt the learner to the program 
rather than to adapt the learning environment to the student's individual 
needs. This does not mean that specific selection or placement criteria 
are always inappropriate. 

A successful instructional service or activity has in place clear, 
well-established prerequisites for successful performance and an 
identification procedure which addresses those prerequisites with valid 
and reliable indicators as criteria. For example, in selecting students to 
participate in an advanced mathematics program, the criteria should be 
related specifically to their skills, reasoning ability, motivation and 
interests in the area of mathematics that is the focus of the program. 7 

Clearly, there is no one right construct or measure, or set of constructs 
or measures that schools ought to use in identifying high-potential 
learners. What is important is that teachers develop an understanding of 
their conception of giftedness and talent, and what they value in serving 
high-potential learners. Once teachers, schools and school districts 
know what it is they value, they can seek a theory or combination of 
theories to help them realize this system of values. 

What school staff value guides them in their identification procedures 
and instructional services. For example, if school staff believe that 
rapid learning produces large academic gains for students, then 
acceleration makes sense. If school staff believe that the depth and care 
students take in probing into what they learn is important, then 
enrichment would be preferable. If both are of high priority, they would 
use a combination in their instructional programming. Whatever 
teachers do, they should ensure that the values expressed in the 
instructional program are the same as those expressed in the 
identification program. 



GT.35 



Some Key Differences Between Traditional 
and Contemporary Identification Paradigms 8 



Identification is . . . 



TRADITIONAL 

Selection: 

Exclusive - find only the 

"right" or "truly gifted" 

students 

Emphasis on "gate-keeping" 

Establishing an index or 

score 

Justifying who's "in" or 
"out." 




CONTEMPORARY 
Diagnostic: 

Prepares for improved or 

enhanced instructional 

planning 

Flexible, ongoing view of 
students' needs 

Inclusive - seeks to nurture 
students' best potentials 

Deliberate, positive: finds 
strengths 

Developmental or 
growth-oriented. 



Appropriate identification practices: 

• are consistent with broader conceptions of giftedness and talent 

• are based on the best available research and recommendations 

• are consistent with a conceptual framework that can be used to 
design all phases of programming for students who are gifted and 
talented 

• are based on the understanding that identification is a continuous 
assessment process 

• find and develop exceptional potential in students 

• use appropriate assessment of data from multiple sources 

• involve students in the diagnostic process of seeing and 
understanding their own strengths and sustained interests 

• express the same values as those expressed in the instructional program 

• are valid and reliable measures of the abilities found in and valued 
by a variety of high-potential, underserved populations 

• achieve an equitable representation of ethnic, cultural and language 
minority students 

• encourage changes in curriculum and instruction, and in the 
perceptions of those implementing, evaluating and being served by 
special programming, including parents 

• can be implemented effectively for school districts with limited 
resources 



GT.36 



• provide a way to address not only academic needs but social, 
emotional and psychological needs. 

Identification procedures make a deliberate effort to search for and 
identify the unique needs of students, based on their interests, strengths 
and talents. Productive identification procedures should address the 
following fundamental questions. 

• What strengths or talents do we see in this student? 

• What is happening now in the student's program? 

• What modifications (if any) are necessary or desirable? 

• What data give us a full picture of this student (academic, social, 
emotional, psychological)? 

• What additional data are needed? 

• What particular interests and accomplishments tell us about this 
student's learning needs? 

• How does information about the student's ability, interests and 
motivation guide us in instructional planning? 



Indicators to Assist in Recognizing Intellectual 
and Affective Characteristics 

Clusters of traits believed to be characteristics of students who are 
gifted and talented have been listed since early in the century. Highly 
able learners commonly demonstrate some, but not necessarily all, of 
the characteristics typically described in the literature. In identifying 
characteristics of students who are gifted and talented, it is important to 
remember the following. 10 Students who are gifted and talented: 

• do not form a homogeneous group 

• possess a unique combination of characteristics and abilities 

• do not necessarily possess all the characteristics on a checklist or 
rating scale 

• vary according to which of these commonly occurring characteristics 
they possess and the intensity of those characteristics 

• encompass a wide range of individual differences — they may be 
more different from each other than alike 

• should not be stereotyped according to commonly occurring 
characteristics; e.g., attributing to a particular student anticipated 
characteristics beyond those that have been observed. 



GT.37 



Intellectual Characteristics 

Several intellectual characteristics have been identified which appear to 
be common to high-potential students. These include the ability to: 

• meaningfully manipulate a symbol system 

• learn at a rapid rate 

• think logically, given appropriate data 

• use stored knowledge to solve problems 

• reason by analogy, as in comparing an unknown and complex process 
or scenario to a familiar one; e.g., design and build a robotic arm to 
function as a human arm 

• extend or extrapolate knowledge to new situations or applications. 

The following chart includes frequently recognized general traits, 
aptitudes or behaviours usually included in any list of intellectual 
characteristics ascribed to high-potential learners. Each trait is 
described and the general description is followed by examples of how 
the behaviour might be demonstrated. 

Intellectual Characteristics of Students who are Gifted and Talented" 



Trait, Aptitude 
or Behaviour 


General Description 


Examples of Demonstrated 
Behaviours 


Motivation — 

evidence of desire to 
learn 


Initiate, direct and sustain 
individual or group behaviour in 
order to satisfy a need or attain a 
goal 


Require little external motivation to 
follow through on work that initially 
excites. 

Demonstrate persistence in pursuing or 
completing self-selected tasks (may be 
culturally influenced), evident in school or 
non-school activities. Enthusiastic 
learners, take great pleasure in intellectual 
activity, have aspiration to be somebody 
or something. 


Interests — advanced, 
intense, sometimes 
unusual interests 


Activities, avocations, subjects 
that have special worth or 
significance and are given special 
attention 


Unusual or advanced interests in a topic 
or activity, self-starters, pursue an activity 
unceasingly beyond the group. 


Problem-solving 
Ability — effective, 
often inventive 
strategies for 
recognizing and solving 
problems 


Process of determining a correct 
sequence of alternatives leading 
to a desired goal or to successful 
completion or performance of a 
task 


Unusual ability to devise or adopt a 
systematic strategy to solve problems and 
change the strategy if it is not working, 
create new designs, inventors, 
demonstrate logical thinking abilities. 

Rapid insight into cause and effect 
relationships. 



GT.38 



Trait, Aptitude 

or Behaviour 

(cont'd) 


General Description 
(cont'd) 


Examples of Demonstrated 

Behaviours 

(cont'd) 


Memory — large 
storehouse of 
information on school 
or non-school topics 


Exceptional ability to retain and 
retrieve information 


Already know, need only one or two 
repetitions for mastery, have a wealth of 
information about school and non-school 
topics, pay attention to details, manipulate 
information. 


Inquiry — questions, 
experiments, explores 


Method or process of seeking 
knowledge, understanding or 
information 


Ask unusual questions for age, play 
around with ideas, extensive exploratory 
behaviours directed toward eliciting 
information about materials, devices or 
situations. 

Take less for granted, seek "how" and 
"why." 


Reasoning — logical 
approach to figuring out 
solutions 


Highly conscious, directed, 
controlled, active, intentional, 
forward-looking and 
goal-oriented thought 


Show a ready grasp of underlying 
principles which foster the ability to make 
generalizations and use metaphors and 
analogies; can think things through in a 
logical manner; critical thinkers; readily 
perceive similarities, differences and 
inconstancies; ability to think things 
through and come up with a plausible 
answer. 


Imagination/ 
Creativity — ability to 
generate highly original 
ideas, produce many 
ideas 


Process of forming mental images 
of objects, qualities, situations or 
relationships which aren't 
immediately apparent to the 
senses, problem solving through 
non-traditional patterns of 
thinking 


Show exceptional ingenuity in using 
everyday materials, independence in 
thinking, are keenly observant, have wild, 
seemingly silly ideas, fluent, flexible 
producers of ideas, highly curious. 



Characteristics of Divergent and Convergent Thinkers 

It may be helpful for teachers to differentiate between two main types of 
students who are gifted and talented — divergent and convergent 
thinkers. 

Divergent thinkers like to explore in a number of directions and enjoy 
making imaginative, intuitive and flexible leaps of insight. They are 
often highly sensitive to stimuli in the world around them and may 
choose to spend hours pursuing particularly creative products and 
performances or unusual, unique and alternative ways of learning. 



GT.39 



Convergent thinkers enjoy and are skilled in processing information in a 
linear, logical sequence and are interested in obtaining the one "correct" 
answer to a problem. They are interested in factual information and are 
high achievers in subjects in which there are exact and predictable 
solutions. They prefer to progress directly onward and upward in their 
learning. Essentially, standardized intelligence tests are constructed to 
identify convergent thinkers. 12 

The following checklists may help teachers differentiate between 
divergent-creative and convergent-academic gifted students. 13 



V 



Divergent-creative students may demonstrate 
a number of the following: 



sensitivity to people and problems 

rapid production and fluency of ideas 

rapid verbalization and retrieval of ideas 

quick reactions and flexibility to change 

flexibility in abstract conceptualizations 

curiosity about many things 

facility in redefining problems 

high levels of energy and perseverance 

originality in humourous responses 

elaboration ability of outstanding quality 

ease in planning concepts and making accurate deductions 

ease in translating information quickly into visual graphics 

originality in solving unusual problems 

ability to synthesize diffuse information into cohesive, smaller units 

motivation only when interested 



• 



Convergent-academic students may demonstrate 
a number of the following: 



prodigious memory with rapid recall 

preference for working alone in one or more subject areas 

enjoyment of problem solving, even when solutions are elusive 

motivation in subjects, even when not their favourite 

conformity and acceptance of authority 

interest in academic subjects 

interest in many hobbies outside class 

ability to weigh and judge the best alternatives 

preferences for immediate feedback 



GT.40 



creativity is the ability: 
to create 

to find new meanings 
to deal with new 
relationships. 



Dalton, 1985, 
P .1 



George Betts has defined two similar sub-groups: 14 

• the intellectually gifted — those who have intellectual abilities 
superior to other students in the school system and who will usually 
score highly on measures of achievement and intelligence 

• the creatively gifted — those who have creative thinking abilities 
superior to other students in the school system and who may not 
score as highly as the intellectually gifted on tests of achievement 
and intelligence, but will score higher on measurements of creativity 
than the general population. 

Creativity 15 

Definitions of creativity have been refined over the years. Some recent 
definitions are quite complex. Creativity implies learning through 
discovery, invention, innovation, imagination, experimentation and 
exploration. It involves more than intellectual ability and includes the 
whole personality in the co-operation of the thinking, feeling, sensing 
and intuitive functions. Current views link it closely with self- 
actualization — realizing and expressing one's own uniqueness and 
complexity. 



Eight commonly identified areas of creativity can be divided into two 
characteristic lists, one with the four intellectual (thinking) abilities, and 
one with the four affective (feeling) abilities. 



Characteristics 

of Creativity 

in Intellectual Abilities 


Characteristics 

of Creativity 

in Affective Abilities 


Fluency (quantity) 

• generating a number of 
relevant responses 

• following a flow of thought 


Curiosity (inquisitiveness) 

• wondering about an idea and 
toying with it 

• discovering and exploring 


Flexibility (categories) 

• approaching things in 
alternative ways 

• changing categories 


Complexity (challenge) 

• seeking many alternatives 

• doing things in intricate ways 

• bringing structure out of chaos 

• seeing missing parts between what 
is and what could be 



GT.41 



^ 



Creativity is more than 

intelligence and results from 

the syntheses of all our 

brain s functions, 'the 

knowing' that is processed 

internally and that which 

comes to us from outside 

our system. At least four 

areas of creativity are being 

studied: creativity as 

rational thought, as unique 

products, as high levels of 

mental health and as an 

intuitive spark. We must 

understand all of these 

areas if we are to 

understand creativity, for it 

is the integration of all these 

abilities that allows us to 

create. Creativity is a 

holistic concept. 

Clark, 1992, cited 
in Department of 
Education, State 
of Victoria, 1996, 
p. 13 



Characteristics 

of Creativity 

in Intellectual Abilities 


Characteristics 

of Creativity 

in Affective Abilities 


Originality (new) 

• producing novel, unique or 
clever ideas 

• combining known ideas into a 
new form 

• creating the unusual 


Risk taking (courage) 

• tolerating ambiguity 

• a willingness to take a chance and 
guess 

• a willingness to express ideas to 
others 

• having the courage to expose self 
to criticism and defend oneself 


Elaboration (adding on to) 

• expanding on basic concepts 

• building up groups of related 
ideas 


Imagination (intuition) 

• daydreaming or fantasizing 

• dreaming about things that never 
happened 

• projecting into the feelings of 
others 

• putting oneself into another time 
or place 



One of the basic 

characteristics of the gifted 

is their intensity and an 

expanded field of their 

subjective experience. The 

intensity, in particular, must 

be understood as a 

qualitatively distinct 

characteristic. It is not a 

matter of degree but of a 

different quality of 

expenencing: vivid, 

absorbing, penetrating, 

encompassing, complex, 

commanding — a way of 

being quiveringly alive. 



Piechowski, 
1992, p. 181 



Affective Characteristics 

Emotional Development 

The importance of the emotional aspect of giftedness has long been 
recognized. Individuals who are gifted, because of their greater facility 
with abstract reasoning, have complex inner lives, early ethical concerns 
and heightened awareness of the world. Intellectual complexity gives 
rise to emotional depth and complexity. In adolescence, emotional 
growth in students who are gifted may result in a greater awareness of 
one's real self, a focus on inner growth through searching, questioning 
and carrying on an inner dialogue, an understanding of feelings and 
emotions, and an empathic approach to others. In recognizing specific 
characteristics of students who are gifted, it is important to understand 
that these students not only think differently from their peers, they also 
feel differently. 

One theory (Dabrowski, 1964, 1972) which explains the emotional 
development of the gifted and talented suggests that individuals who are 
gifted have more pronounced responses to various types of stimuli. This 
phenomenon has been translated as overexcitability. which comes in five 
varieties: 

• psychomotor — is characterized by an excess of physical energy and 
hyperactivity 

• sensual — is characterized by extreme pleasure in using one's senses 



GT.42 



• intellectual — is characterized by an intense interest in a person's 
metacognitive processes 

• imaginational — is characterized by heightened ability to visualize 
and role play 

• emotional — is characterized by intense concern about relationships 
with others and the universe. 

Of these overexcitabilities, the emotional variety is most prominent 
among students who are gifted and talented. 

Overexcitabilities (OEs) 

Individuals may experience one or more of these OEs at varying 
degrees of intensity. The greater the strength of the OEs, the greater the 
developmental potential for following an ethical, compassionate path in 
adulthood (Lysy & Piechowski, 1983; Piechowski, 1979). Because 
persons who are gifted show more intense overexcitabilities, they are 
more driven in these areas. In moving toward self-knowledge and 
self-actualization, inner turmoil, despair, intense emotional growth and 
self-examination are part of changing and growing, and are necessary 
for personal growth and development (Webb, 1993). 

Sensitivity, intensity, perfectionism and introversion are all aspects of 
emotional overexcitability. Therefore, students who are gifted, who 
exhibit high degrees of sensitivity are endowed with high emotional OE 
(Silverman, 1994). Intensity, while a strong indicator of emotional OE, 
has been used synonymously with all the OEs (Kitano, 1990; Lind, 
1993). Perfectionism begins as a facet of emotional OE, but can evolve 
into the drive for self-perfection, moving the individual toward higher- 
level development (Silverman, 1990). Introversion, often perceived 
negatively in our extroverted society, is actually a developmentally 
positive trait (Silverman, 1994). 

Emotional sensitivity and intensity — sometimes prominent and 
sometimes hidden — are two basic characteristics which distinguish 
most students who are gifted, account for their vulnerabilities in 
childhood and get them in trouble at school. When they see themselves 
as different from others, they begin to doubt themselves, asking, "What 
is wrong with me?" These creative individuals live at a level of intensity 
unknown to others. Their intense concern with moral issues, concern for 
others and probing existential questions can give them cause for concern 
because these preoccupations are so different from those of their peers 
(Dabrowski, 1972). Rather than view this as a neurotic imbalance, 
teachers must help students who are gifted and talented understand their 
potential for further growth. 



GT.43 



The following chart lists the affective characteristics or emotional traits of many but not all students 
who are gifted and talented (Baska, 1989; Clark, 1988; Dabrowski, 1979/1994; Goleman. 1995; 
Piechowski & Miller, 1995; Silverman, 1994; Van Tassel-Baska, 1989; Webb. 1993. Additional 
source: Department of Education, State of Victoria, 1996). 

Affective Characteristics of Students who are Gifted 



Characteristic 


General Description 


Heightened 
Sensitivity 
and Empathy 


compassion, considerateness and understanding of others: protective, nurturing: 
easily moved to tears; feel others' feelings; sensitive to injustice, criticism, pain; 
strong need for consistency between values and actions within self and others; 
caring, understanding, forming strong attachments; empowering others: aesthetic 
sensitivity (appreciation for complexity in works of art and ability to interpret 
works of art); ability to read non-verbal cues: extremely observant 


Heightened 

Intensity 

of Experience 


energetic, enthusiastic; intensely absorbed in various pursuits; vivid imagination: 
emotional vulnerability; emotional intensity (experiences emotions strongly and 
may be emotionally reactive); strong attachments and commitments; high 
expectations of self and others 


Perfectionism 


high achievers; exhibit high personal standards; set unrealistic expectations: 
demonstrate persistence, perseverance and enthusiastic devotion to work: give up 
if own standards are not met or if a mistake is made; self-evaluative and 
self-judging; have feelings of inadequacy and inferiority, and desire praise and 
reassurance; become extremely defensive if given criticism; less tolerant of 
imperfection in others; procrastinate 


Introversion 


have deep feelings; are reflective and introspective; focus on inner growth through 
searching, questioning and exercising self-corrective judgement; have knowledge 
about emotions: may withdraw into themselves rather than acting out aggressively 
toward others 


Superior Humour 


convey and pick up on humour quickly and well; ability to synthesize key ideas or 
problems in complex situations in a humorous way; exceptional sense of timing in 
words and gestures; keen sense of humour that may be gentle or hostile; large 
accumulation of information about emotions; capacity for seeing the unusual; 
uncommon emotional depth; openness to experiences; heightened sensory 
awareness 


Moral Sensitivity 
and Integrity 


emotional sensitivity; innate sense of right and wrong; complex inner life: early 
ethical concerns; heightened awareness of the world; advanced moral reasoning 
and judgement; high moral values; empathic attitude towards others; tolerance (not 
aggression); responsibility for others and self; a just attitude (treating everybody 
by the same standards); truthfulness; authenticity; courage in the face of adversity; 
altruism and idealism (desire to enhance caring and civility in the community' and 
in society at large) 



) 



GT.44 



Leadership Characteristics 16 

Because of their profound emotional intelligence, sensitivity, awareness 
and potential for self-actualization, students who are gifted often exhibit 
advanced leadership skills. The following attributes are indicative of an 
exemplary leader. Such gifted students: 

• may carry responsibility well — can be counted on to do what they 
have promised and usually do it well 

• are self-confident with their peers, and respond and relate well to 
parents, teachers and other adults 

• seem comfortable when asked to show their work to the class 

• seem to be well-liked by their classmates 

• are co-operative with teachers and classmates — tend to avoid 
bickering and are generally easy to get along with 

• can express themselves well — have a good verbal facility and are 
usually well-understood 

• adapt readily to new situations — are flexible in thought and action 
and do not seem disturbed when the normal routine is changed 

• seem to enjoy being around other people — are sociable and prefer 
not to be alone 

• generally direct the activity in which they are involved 

• participate in most social activities connected with the school and 
can be counted on to be there 

• excel in athletic activities — are well-co-ordinated and enjoy all 
sorts of athletic games 

• are able to pick up and interpret non-verbal cues, and can draw 
inferences that other students have to have spelled out for them. 



Characteristics and Behaviours of Young 
Students who are Gifted and Talented 17 

Young gifted children exhibit some unique learning and behavioural 
tendencies which, if observed and understood, can lead to early 
identification and appropriate scholastic accommodations. Being 
familiar with the following early indicators of giftedness ensures young 
children who are gifted are not misunderstood or overlooked in special 
instruction or programming options. 



GT.45 



Characteristics 



Curiosity 



Ability to learn quickly 
from mistakes 



Ability to transfer 
knowledge 



Depth and/or breadth 
of interests 



Advanced preference 
in books and films 



Boredom when forced 
into redundant work 
and learning 



Decrease in quality on a 
series of repetitive tasks 



Creative mischief 



Friends 



Games 



Description of Behaviour 



These students ask provocative questions at an 
early age, listen intently to the answers and 
often respond with subsequent questions: they 
take less for granted, seeking the "how" and 
"why." 



They form strategies to deal with relevant 
mistakes and then apply these to new 
situations. 



They apply knowledge in constructing new 
relationships by making new connections. 



They develop an interest in something and 
want to know all about it. They make 
exceptional efforts to pursue their interests. 



They may learn to read earlier than others and 
with a better comprehension of the nuances of 
language. They will often read widely, quickly 
and intensely, and have a large vocabulary. 
They may be drawn to books, films and 
television programs recommended for children 
three-to-five years older. 



This occurs after mastering a task, when they 
are not interested and experience lack of 
challenge. 



A disinterest in repetitive work may be made 
obvious by a decrease in input to tasks. 



This is not the same as deliberate 
misbehaviour. They may not break the rules 
precisely, but manipulate them to suit their 
intentions. 



Young students who are gifted may gravitate 
toward older students to whom they feel they 
can better relate. 



They insist on rigid rules or invent a change of 
rules when playing games. 



GT.46 



Concerns Related to the Characteristic 
Strengths Associated with Giftedness 

Problems that may be associated with characteristic strengths of 
students who are gifted are: 

• acquiring and retaining information quickly may result in impatience 
with the slowness of others 

• critical thinking abilities may lead to critical or intolerant views of 
others 

• love of truth, equity and fair play may result in difficulty being 
practical, and worry about humanitarian concerns 

• combinations of characteristics may lead to difficulties with peer 
relations, perfectionism, avoidance of risk taking and excessive 
self-criticism (Webb, 1993). 

Difficulties these students may experience could be categorized as 
follows: 

• environmental; e.g., if the school program lacks challenge, 
boredom, resentment or disengagement may occur 

• interpersonal: e.g.. students who are gifted may be perceived as 
different by peers or teachers which may cause these students to 
mask their high potentials 

• intrapersonal; e.g., problems can arise related to self-concept, 
self-esteem and self-acceptance (Allan & Fox, 1979). 

Schools should not lose the moral dimension of giftedness through 
identification procedures that focus solely on performance of special 
talents in specific domains (Silverman, 1994). If teachers place too 
much value on performance — with competitions, media attention, 
external recognition and rewards — they may be inadvertently teaching 
students they are valued only for what they do. Many students who are 
gifted and talented are not as concerned with outward achievement and 
recognition as is characteristic of the self-consciousness and egocentrism 
of early adolescence. Rather, these students often follow a type of 
growth oriented more toward introspection and emotional awareness, as 
illustrated in the example on the following page. 



GT.47 



1 



Some gifted children show enormous empathy with others, 
surpassing at times the compassion of adults who are more 
limited by society 's expectations. As a result, adults may not 
understand a child 's reaction. For example, during a chess 
tournament, John, the obvious winner, began to make careless 
mistakes and lost the game. When asked what happened, he 
replied, "I noticed my opponent had tears in his eyes. I could 
not concentrate and lost my desire to win. " John 's empathy 
was greater than his ambition. Many adults, especially those 
who supported John, were disappointed. Yet, one could argue 
that his reaction was a more mature one than theirs for his 
self-esteem did not depend on winning the competition. 

(AnneMarie Roeper. 1982. p. 24. cited in Piechowski. 1991. p. 290). 



Giftedness is asynchronous 

development in which 

advanced cognitive abilities 

and heightened intensity 

combine to create inner 

experiences and awareness 

that are qualitatively 

different from the norm. 

This asynchrony increases 

with higher intellectual 

capacity. The uniqueness 

of the gifted renders them 

particularly vulnerable and 

requires modifications in 

parenting, teaching and 

counselling in order for them 

to develop optimally. 

The Columbus 
Group, 1991 



Asynchrony 

Asynchrony is uneven development in the rates of intellectual, 
emotional and physical development. It is important that teachers 
recognize asynchrony as a characteristic of giftedness. Asynchrony 
means that: 

• students who are gifted are more complex and intense than their 
peers 

• students who are gifted may feel out-of-sync with age peers and age- 
appropriate curriculum 

• the greater the degree to which intellectual development outstrips 
physical development, the more out-of-sync the student feels — 
internally, in social relations and in relation to the school curriculum 
(Silverman, 1994). 

These differences make students who are gifted extremely vulnerable. 
Their greatest need is each other in an environment in which it is safe to 
be different. 



These students may appear to be different ages in different situations. 
The internal tension that is created is often demonstrated in external 
adjustment difficulties. 

Intellectual and personality traits of students who are gifted and talented 
can become disadvantages when those differences are not valued. The 
greater the asynchrony, the emotional sensitivity and the emotional 
intensity of a high-potential learner, the greater the vulnerability of the 
student within an insensitive environment. Identification, assessment 
and programming procedures must attend to special educational and 
counselling needs as well as academic provisions for students who are 
gifted and talented. 



GT.48 



As an integral part of their 

education, we must 

sensitize gifted children and 

youth to the major problems 

our world societies face — 

among them, poverty, 

famine, war and nuclear 

annihilation . . . depletion of 

resources, environmental 

pollution, cultural conflict 

. . . unemployment, and 

quality of life. We must 

sensitize gifted and talented 

children and youth to be 

concerned about these 

problems not because they 

are going to resolve them as 

students, but because we 
want them to care enough to 

devote themselves to 
developing their specialized 

gifts and talents to 

conthbuting to the resolution 

of the problems which beset 

our world. 

Passow, 1988, 
p. 13 



Difficulties in Recognizing Certain Students 
who are Gifted in the Classroom 

Unfortunately, some students who are gifted, who indicate potential 
through a number of characteristics, may not demonstrate these at 
school. For a variety of reasons, they may have disengaged from school 
and from learning. Clearly, the potential these students possess is 
difficult for teachers to recognize. 

Some aspects of the typical characteristics of students who are gifted 
may, in fact, detract from their interest in learning and result in failure 
to achieve their potential. 

Students who are gifted may be categorized into six profiles, four of 
which are characterized by traits which are not likely to alert teachers in 
the first instance, to their high potential. These four are Types 2, 3, 4 
and 5. The six profiles are: 18 

Type 1 — The successful gifted student: These students learn well 
and score highly on both intelligence and achievement tests. They are 
eager for approval from significant others, conforming, dependent and 
perfectionist and rarely exhibit any behavioural difficulties at school. 
As many as 90 per cent of students who are identified for gifted 
programs belong to this type. 

Type 2 — The challenging/divergently gifted student: These 
students are highly creative. They may, however, appear to be 
obstinate, tactless or sarcastic. They do not conform to the school 
system. Their interactions at school and at home, such as correcting 
adults, questioning rules, poor self-control and standing up for their 
own convictions, often involve conflict. 

Type 3 — The underground gifted student: These students deny 
their talents in order to be accepted by others. They are often girls in 
late primary and early secondary school wanting to be accepted by their 
peers. They resist challenges, are insecure, frustrated and often have 
low self-esteem. 

Type 4 — The dropout gifted student: These students are angry with 
adults, society and themselves because, over a number of years, they 
feel the system has not met their needs. They have low self-esteem, feel 
rejected and are often bitter and resentful. They can be disruptive and 
abusive or withdrawn. They do not complete school tasks, do 
inconsistent work and seem to be of only average or lower ability. 



GT.49 



Type 5 — The double-labelled gifted student: These students, as 
well as possessing high potential, are also either learning disabled or 
have emotional difficulties. They usually produce substandard or 
incomplete work because they may be anxious about failure. They 
often display disruptive behaviours and are viewed as only average 
performers. They feel stressed, discouraged, frustrated or helpless. 

Type 6 — The autonomous gifted student: These students are 
independent and self-directed. They accept themselves and are high 
risk takers. They feel in charge of their lives, and express their feelings, 
needs and goals freely and appropriately. They have positive 
self-images, are successful and use the school system effectively to 
create new opportunities for themselves. 

These profiles of the gifted were first developed in 1988 by George 
Betts and Maureen Neihart. 



Guidance and Counselling Support 

As well as coping with social and emotional issues similar to those 
faced by all students during their development, students who are gifted 
and talented often face additional concerns. Some of these are related 
to the characteristics associated with their giftedness, while others are 
related to the reactions of the range of significant people in their 

19 

environment. 

The following list outlines areas of particular difficulty for students who 
are gifted who may be as young as 1 1 years of age. especially girls:"" 

• identity diffusion — continuing concerns about abilities and talents 

• alienation — worries about being considered different from peers 

• role conflict and concerns about societal expectations of roles 
associated with gender 

• perfectionism 

• premature identity — closing off self-identity' development due to 
impatience with lack of clarity of who they are 

• the separation process — difficulties understanding differences of 
family members and severing attachments 

• problems appreciating the years of practice needed to develop skills 
fully and the need for perseverance 

• problems with emotional over-control 

• fear of failure. 

Schools can support students who are gifted in dealing with these 
concerns in a variety of ways. Guidance, counselling and support may 
be provided on an informal or regular basis to students individually or 
in groups, by professional counsellors or by caring staff. ' 

GT.50 



Coping Strategies 22 

Students who are gifted may benefit from being taught the following 
coping strategies: 

• separating facts from feelings 

• changing the way they perceive and think about events 

• refining time management and work organization skills 

• learning cognitive behavioural self-talk strategies 

• learning reflective questioning strategies 

• building a system of social supports 

• accentuating their positives 

• becoming involved in assertive communication skill training 

• developing social skills 

• focusing on problem solving 

• learning relaxation and tension-reduction strategies. 

Career guidance is critical for students who are gifted. Students who 
are gifted are often confused by their own multi-potentiality, that is, the 
wide range of study and career options available to them. Students who 
are gifted need to be exposed to a broad range of experiences so they 
have the opportunity to develop areas that may not have been developed 
as initial interests. They also need guidance in order to choose wisely 
from a genuinely comprehensive array of career options. 



Gathering and Recording Many Kinds of Data 

As informal recognition of students who are gifted and talented can be 
problematic, a flexible and ongoing approach to formal identification 
procedures is recommended. For reliable and systematic identification, 
a range of different measures is required. A system using both 
quantitative and qualitative measures will potentially increase the 
number of students identified and served. 

Clearly the key purpose in identifying students who are gifted and 
talented is to provide the educational programming best suited to their 
individual needs. Each jurisdiction may choose a combination of the 
most appropriate and practicable measures of identification to suit their 
values, beliefs and circumstances. 

Typically, several kinds of data are included in identification 
procedures. These data fall into four broad categories: tests, ratings or 
referrals, products and accomplishments, and classroom performance 
data. Student profiles and student portfolios, which contain informal, 
performance-based assessment information, also are critical in 
identifying, documenting and evaluating students' significant strengths, 
talents and interests. 



GT.51 



^ 



The following broad range of processes of identification are 
recommended. 



Standardized Tests: 

• highlight student 
strengths 

• focus attention on 
objectives 

• can measure some 
domains of knowledge 
accurately 

• are cost effective 

• are efficient. 

Renzulli, 1994, 
p. 107 



Tests 

The superiority of students on the dimensions which determine 
giftedness and talent can be demonstrated through one or more tests that 
are valid assessments. Students must be able to demonstrate, in one 
way or another, that they really have the abilities or achievements which 
indicate giftedness or talent. Simply claiming giftedness is not 
enough." 4 

If the assessment instruments used meet the criteria of reliability, 
validity, objectivity and audience appropriateness, they can provide 
teachers with useful information. In the past, many schools were 
content to use standardized intelligence tests, scores on achievement 
tests and marks in school as bases for identifying students as 
intellectually gifted. As the focus of testing has shifted more and more 
toward an emphasis on performance-based and product-based 
assessment, the validity of traditional measures has come into question; 
e.g., Gardner, 1983, Renzulli, 1986. It is important to remember that 
all sources of information are valuable if they improve teachers' 
understanding of students' potential for future performance and provide 
direction for enhancing future performance. 

Individual Intelligence Tests 

Individual intelligence tests, such as those in the Weschler and the 
Stanford-Binet series, provide a profile of problem-solving abilities in 
both verbal and performance spheres. They also provide the 
opportunity for skilled observation, by a qualified psychologist, of 
students in a controlled situation with exposure to stimulating 
materials. 

Standardized intelligence tests can be useful in the identification 
procedure. IQ (intelligence quotient) tests are significant tools for 
recognizing the special education needs of intellectually gifted students. 
IQ tests can identify students who are exceptionally gifted and have 
unique educational and socio-emotional needs (Gross, 1993). They can 
also identify students who do not fit the stereotypic trinity of high verbal 
ability, high achievement and high motivation — those students who 
are underachievers, have low verbal ability, have handicaps, such as 
learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, hearing impairments, visual 
impairments and physical impairments (Kaufman & Harrison. 1986). 



J 



GT.52 



Although IQ tests are useful for making decisions for participation in 
gifted programming, they are less useful for determining the most 
appropriate educational experiences (Pyryt, 1996). 

Intelligence tests are useful identification procedures for several 
reasons. These tests yield approximately equal numbers of boys and 
girls who are gifted in early childhood (Silverman, 1986), whereas all 
measures of achievement discriminate increasingly against females 
from junior high through adulthood (Sadker & Sadker, 1994). Children 
from diverse ethnic backgrounds stand a better chance of being 
discovered through IQ tests than through achievement-based measures, 
since achievement is more a function of environment than ability. The 
IQ, as a ratio of mental age to chronological age, can provide valuable 
information about asynchrony, or the discrepant rates of intellectual, 
emotional and physical development which creates inner tension in 
students who are gifted and talented (Silverman, 1994). 

Although individual intelligence tests are still considered by many to 
provide the best single indicator of giftedness, and have been in use and 
continually refined over many decades, an identification procedure 
reliant on such a measure as the sole indicator is likely to exclude 
certain students who are gifted. Individual intelligence tests favour 
convergent students who are gifted, can be insensitive to disadvantages 
in the learning backgrounds of certain students and do not probe such 
characteristics as emotional giftedness, goal directedness, specific 
talents, creativity, breadth of interests, independence in work skills and 
intellectual curiosity. 

The categories outlined below may be used as an orientation for 
developing individualized programs for students who are gifted and 
talented. 



Categories of giftedness based on IQ 



27 



1 15-129 IQ 


Mildly gifted 


(+1-2 SD) 


130-144 IQ 


Moderately gifted 


(+2-3 SD) 


145-159 IQ 


Highly gifted 


(+3-4 SD) 


160+ IQ 


Extraordinarily gifted 


(<+4 SD) 



GT.53 



) 



Group Intelligence Tests 28 

Group intelligence tests may be used in schools as a standardized 
measure to identify gifted students. Tests include the Canadian 
Cognitive Abilities Test (CCAT, 1990), the Otis-Lennon School Ability 
Test (1989) and Ravens Progressive Matrices (1989). 



Group intelligence tests are often restricted to testing one type of ability, 
such as visual-spatial skills or language comprehension. Several tend to 
test the level of achievement rather than the potential for learning and 
reasoning capacities. In addition, these pencil and paper tests may 
discriminate against slow writers, students of non-English-speaking 
background, poor readers, and poorly motivated and underachieving 
students. For these reasons, it is estimated that group intelligence tests 
fail to identify more than 50 per cent of students who are gifted. 

Achievement Testing in Academic Aptitudes 29 

Specific aptitude tests are designed to test achievement levels in 
school-based tasks, such as mathematics, language areas and reading, 
and science. Some of these tests purely assess master)' of designated 
subskills learned; others are more effective at probing understanding 
and ability to reason in the area. 

Out-of-Level Testing 

For the identification of students who are gifted, it is recommended that 
continued assessment on specific aptitudes or achievement, using the 
tests of higher grade levels, be administered in order to gauge precise 
levels of skills and knowledge, and a more accurate estimate of student 
potential. ° One example is a test where a student in Grade 3 could 
demonstrate a reading and comprehension level of Grade 1 2+. 



) 



Teacher-made and 
Authentic Assessments: 

• maximize and highlight 
student strengths 

• do not rely on arbitrary 
time constraints 

• may involve an actual 
audience 

• are not always evaluated 
on a single score 

• are representative of the 
challenges that exist 
within a discipline 

• minimize comparisons 
among students. 

Renzulli, 1994, 
p. 107 



Teacher-made Tests 

Teacher-made tests are usually designed to assess the degree of mastery 
of a specific unit that has been taught and evaluate competence in 
particular coursework. Objective teacher-made tests; e.g., multiple 
choice, matching and short answer, provide information about knowledge 
acquisition, the mastery of basic skills and in some cases, 
problem-solving strategies. Although this information is useful for 
determining general levels of proficiency, the most valuable kind of 
teacher-made assessments are those that elicit open-ended or extended 
responses. Responses of this type enable teachers to gain insight into 
complex student abilities, such as constructing convincing arguments, 
using expressive written or oral language, generating relevant hypotheses, 
applying creative solutions to complex problems and demonstrating deep 
levels of understanding. 3 ' 



GT.54 



In using the diagnostic approach, test data may be useful in the 

IT 

following ways. 



• 



Test results can help teachers compare student achievement levels 
with appropriate norms. 



• Criterion-referenced test data can inform teachers about students' 
actual grasp or mastery of a well-specified knowledge base (or the 
objectives within a certain content domain). 

• Test data provide information about students' general knowledge, 
memory, various reasoning abilities, and how quickly and well 
students perform under specific testing conditions. These data help 
teachers plan how best to conduct instruction and what specific 
content may be most appropriate for the student at a particular time 
and setting. 

• Test data help teachers recognize significant strengths of students 
whose classroom performance suffers for various reasons — those 
potentials which may otherwise go unnoticed. 

The value of test data rests in the information it provides, not simply in 
overall indexes or total scores to be used to qualify or disqualify 
students or establish their eligibility for a particular program. Some 
examples of standardized tests which may be useful in the identification 
process are listed in Section 10, pages GT.29 1-308. 



GT.55 



^ 



) 




Ratings or Referrals 

Information from several sources, in the form 
of checklists, rating scales, recommendations 
or referrals, can be valuable in identifying 
students' interests, special talents and unique 
characteristics. A teacher, parent or student 
may identify a significant strength that would 
have gone unnoticed. To be useful, rating 
scales, checklists or referral forms should ask 
specific questions that are directly related to 
understanding the student's strengths, learning 
preferences or styles, interests and activities, 
accomplishments and products. 33 

Two sample checklists are included as 
Appendices 2 and 3. pages GT.222-223. 



J 



GT.56 



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Teacher Nomination 34 

Teacher nomination checklists have been found to 
be particularly useful in helping teachers observe 
students in structured and systematic ways. These 
checklists assist teachers in making informed 
judgements about the potential of students beyond 
assumptions on the sole basis of achievement 
scores or behaviours in class, which may be 
misleading. See Appendices 4—5, pages 
GT.224— 227 for more on recognizing giftedness. 



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Parent Nomination 35 

Researchers highly recommend that parent 
questionnaires, designed to obtain relevant home 
background, personal student history, parental 
perceptions of children and early learning 
experiences be included as important 
components of identification procedures used in 
schools. See Appendices 6-7, pages 
GT.228-23 1 for more on parent identification. 



GT.57 



^ 



Peer Nomination"* 



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Peer Nomination 

Research indicates that peer group nominations of 
students who are gifted can be quite accurate and have a 
reasonable correlation with standardized intelligence 
tests. Students should not see this as an evaluation, 
but rather as a way of recognizing one another's 
strengths and differences. See Appendix 8, page 
GT.232 for a peer nomination form which could be 
used with junior, intermediate and senior level students. 



Self-nomination 37 

Self-nomination measures can complement observations and ratings 
made by significant others. They may provide insights into a student's 
self-perceptions, self-esteem, attitudes and values, which may be 
consistent with accepted characteristics of students who are gifted and 
talented. 



J 



GT.58 




Student Interest Inventories 38 

Student interest inventories are self-report 
measures which, when carefully designed, may 
provide detailed information about a student's 
talents and interests. An example of a 
comprehensive interest inventory has been 
produced by Renzulli (1977). This inventory 
covers such aspects as asking students to rank 
choices regarding careers, book titles, favourite 
experts to invite into the classroom, places they 
would like to spend a weekend, the favoured 
possessions they would take on a trip to space 
and the things they would like to collect if they 
had the time and money. A specific reading 
interest inventory may also yield useful 
information. See Appendices 9-13, 
pages GT.233-238, for other examples of 
student interest inventories. 

Individual Interviews 39 

Finally, conducting personal interviews with 
students may reveal information that none of 
the more formal measures may tap. Clearly, 
appropriate rapport needs to be established for 
certain students to feel comfortable about 
disclosing information about their hobbies, 
interests, extra-curricular achievements and 
particularly, their thoughts and wishes. 
Carefully phrased questions may provide 
important insights into the gifts, talents and 
passion areas of high-potential students. 



Products and Accomplishments 

Identification data may include consideration of student products or 
work samples. Products could include such things as portfolios of 
writing, photographs of student projects, journals and taped samples of 
oral language which reflect a broad and varied sampling of activities. 
These products can reflect students' task commitment, creativity and 
ability levels, expressed directly through their actions rather than 
through a formal assessment or test. 



GT.59 



^ 



) 



) 



It is important to include information selected by students and parents 
as well as teachers. Teachers may also gather valuable insights into 
students' potentials and talents, through the feedback from various 
authentic audiences who have viewed student products. 

The products expected from students who are gifted should resemble 
the products developed by professionals in the discipline being studied 
(Renzulli, 1977). These professional products will differ from typical 
student products in the following ways. 41 

• Result from real problems — The products developed by students 
who are gifted should address problems that are real to them. 
Students can be encouraged to choose a specific area of concern 
within a certain field of study and design an investigation around that 
area. 



• 



• 



Addressed to real audiences — To the extent possible, the products 
developed by students who are gifted should be addressed to real 
audiences, such as the scientific community, city council or a 
government agency. At other times, the real audience consists of 
classmates or other students in the school. Students who are gifted 
should not be developing products that are seen or heard only by the 
teacher. 

Transformation — Products of students who are gifted should 
represent transformations of existing information or data rather than 
mere summaries of others* conclusions. Original research, original 
artwork and other such products should include the collection and 
analysis of raw data. If students use higher levels of thinking, they 
must produce a product that is a true transformation. 

Variety — Students who are gifted should be encouraged to learn 
about and use a variety of types of products and consider carefully 
what is the most appropriate representation of their content to the 
proposed audience. Variety in products allows students with 
different intellectual and creative strengths to demonstrate their 
competence with appropriate media. They also need practice using 
varied product options to meet the same goal. 

Self-selected format — Students who are gifted must be allowed to 
decide which formats to use in presenting their solutions to problems 
real to them. Student interests, strengths and prior experiences all 
may influence these choices. Certainly teachers can provide 
assistance in the selection of a format and may encourage students, at 
times, to try a format new to them, however students should be 
allowed to make the final choices. 



GT.60 



• Appropriate evaluation — Often, student products are directed 
toward and evaluated by the teacher only. The products of 
professionals are evaluated by the audiences for whom they were 
intended. Products of students who are gifted should be evaluated 
by appropriate audiences, including audiences of peers. Students 
also should be encouraged or required to complete an extensive self- 
evaluation of their own products. 

The following suggestions offer a variety of forms and modalities in 
which products may be presented. 



Product 

Form/Modality 


Suggestions for Product Presentation 


Oral 


cassette; chant; choral reading or drama; debate, 
dialogue or discussion; intercom message; interview; 
lecture, speech or teaching lesson; monologue; oral 
imitations; panel discussion; reader's theatre or 
storytelling; report; song; survey 


Visual 


advertisement; artifacts; blueprint; book jacket; 
bulletin board; cartoon; charts or diagrams; poster, 
collage, mindmap or web; computer graphics; display; 
filmstrip or slides; folding chart; graffiti; mini-gallery; 
mural; overhead; painting; photographs; program; 
project cube; rebus; record cover; rubbings; scroll; 
spread sheet; story board; tableau; tables; time capsule 
or timeline; transparency; visual journal or wordless 
book 


Written 


acrostic; advertisement or slogans; autobiography, 
biography or bibliography; book review; brochure or 
pamphlet; case study; celebrity cards; code; computer 
program; criticism or editorial; crossword puzzle; 
definitions; epitaphs; fact file; instructions; invitations; 
itinerary; journal/diary; letter; list; manual; menus; 
newspaper outline; palindromes; puns or tongue 
twisters; quotation collage; recipe; logbook or record 
book; report; requests; resume; schedule; script; song; 
story; summary; telegrams; textbook or worksheet; 
travelogue; want ads 


Kinesthetic 


collection, costume, creative movement, dance, 
demonstration or dramatization, diorama, experiment, 
flip-book, game, impersonation, mini-center, mobile, 
model, museum, pantomime, playmaking, prototype, 
puppetry, puzzle, scrapbook, sculpture, stitchery or 
weaving, terrarium, treasure hunt, vivarium 



GT.61 



Students take more care in developing their products when they are 
intended for audiences beyond the classroom. Products for real 
audiences include: 

letters to the editor and articles in the local newspaper 

student works published in children's literary magazines 

displays in public places — malls, banks, shop windows, parks 

presentations to appropriate local groups; e.g., city council, historical 

society, naturalist society 

artistic performances for the public or senior citizens 

story telling in a library or bookstore 

creation of oral history tapes for a library 

"invention" convention for other students 

mall display of outcomes from ecological studies 

contribution of math puzzles to children's magazines 

televised student panel discussion of a community problem 

student business plans reviewed by business community 

dramatization of an issue for the community. 

Classroom Performance Data 

Classroom performance data include feedback from teachers, classroom 
test results, report card marks, anecdotal records, etc. This data can 
help teachers recognize specific accomplishments or achievements on a 
day-to-day basis among students in certain subject areas. 44 

There are two principles that teachers should consider when collecting 
anecdotal comments. First, observations should take place in authentic 
situations — those that are part of normal instruction. For example, a 
student's capacity to work co-operatively may be noted in working with 
a group on a task that requires collaboration. 

Second, observations need to allow for making inferences about 
learning. The recording of anecdotal comments should be oriented 
toward interpretative questions, such as. "Why did the student do that?" 
or, "What general pattern of learning is exemplified?" Looking beyond 
the particular instance that was observed is important because it is the 
interpretation and explanation of patterns of learning that will establish 
the basis for evaluation and future instruction. 

In gathering and using several kinds of data, teachers may want to 
include the development and use of student profiles and student 
portfolios — two important components in an inclusive, contemporary 
approach to identifying students' strengths, talents and interests. 



GT.62 



... a child who has 

developed a spirited interest 

in dolphins, but who is also 

experiencing difficulties in 

reading and basic language 

skills, is far more likely to 

read background material 

and improve written and oral 

language skills when he or 

she is working on a 

research project based on 

this abiding interest in 

dolphins. 

Renzulli, 1994, 
p. 100 



Student Profiles 

Student profiles may be used to create programs to meet students' 
unique learning needs. The main purposes of student profiles are to 
guide assessment of strengths, talents and sustained interests as input 
for effective instructional planning. A profile may be appropriate to 
develop for any student. However, it is essential to develop student 
profiles when teachers become aware that students are experiencing 
specific difficulties in their learning. 45 

A student profile is intended for several purposes, including: 45 

• identifying areas of sustained interest 

• finding emerging strengths and talents 

• understanding the conditions under which the student works or 
performs best 

• relating past learning to future experiences and needs 

• providing a planning foundation for active learning 

• guiding instructional planning and decision making. 



IPP — Student Profile" 



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Students' profiles may contain: interest 
assessments, journals and learning logs, test 
data, psychoeducational testing data, anecdotal 
data, observations of student performance, prior 
grades and evaluations, learning styles data, 
personal characteristics data, biographical data, 
information from parents, observational data, 
and ratings and references. It may also contain 
data about transferable process skills, such as 
thinking, writing and computer skills, personal 
goals and self-identified challenges, and 
students' portfolios. 45 See Appendix 14, page 
GT.239 for a blank IPP — Student Profile. 
Also see pages GT.81 and GT.83 for samples of 
completed IPP — Student Profiles. 

Five areas to consider are the student's: 46 

■^ academic achievement 

<=& learning styles and strengths 

^ interests 

^ special abilities 

*=** visions and goals for the future. 



GT.63 



^ 



^ Academic achievement indicates what students can do in various 
areas of the curriculum. In addition to academic achievement, tests 
that have a ceiling many years beyond the students' age level can 
provide information about students' maximum levels of 
performance. This information is valuable when selecting learning 
activities, materials and environments that may provide a challenge. 



) 




** Learning styles and strengths refers to the way 
students approach learning. The concept of 
learning styles is approached from various 
perspectives. See Appendices 15-19, pages 
GT.240-245 for checklists. 

^ Interests of students can provide a basis for 
curriculum development, extension exercises 
and independent studies. This data may be 
gathered through teacher observation and 
various published inventories. 

^ Special abilities refers to students' talents that 
may or may not be demonstrated through the 
school curriculum. Students may have special 
abilities in taking mechanical objects apart and 
putting them back together, or may be 
accomplished pianists, figure skaters or hockey 
players. Special abilities often can be 
identified through knowledge of students' 
hobbies, extracurricular activities and outside 
interests. 

*& Vision and goals for the future are students* 
personal values and hopes for the future. This 
includes students' desired lifestyles, possible 
careers and community interests set in the 
context of a long-term vision. Creating a 
vision or desired future provides students with 
focus for personal planning. 



While student profiles are intended to serve primarily as diagnostic or 
planning aids, the main purposes of student portfolios have to do with 
record-keeping and documentation. 






GT.64 



Portfolios are useful within 
the field of gifted education. 
They provide a logical way 
to trace talent development 
and to record modifications 

such as curriculum 

compacting. Compacting 

allows teachers to identify 

student strengths, document 

mastery of content, and 

replace learned matenal 

with challenging 

opportunities. Examples of 

enrichment activities, 

acceleration opportunities, 

and evidence of involvement 

with real-world problems 

and audiences can be 

included 



K Kettle (ed.), 
1994 



Student Portfolio 

A portfolio is a systematic collection of student work selected largely by 
students to provide information about their attitudes, motivation, level 
of development and growth over time 



48 



The student portfolio provides an effective framework for gathering and 
organizing data about student learning and accomplishment. The 
portfolio is created, and most often maintained and retained, by the 
person whose work is represented. It can be displayed, presented or 
even reproduced for others to incorporate as part of a profile or learning 
plan. Although the use of portfolios is common in the fine arts, it 
should be generalizable to other curriculum areas. A portfolio can be 
created in any area of creative productivity. 49 

Some purposes for developing a portfolio include: 

• documenting one's own activities and accomplishments over an 
extended period of time 

• charting one's course and growth 

• monitoring and adjusting one's path and actions 

• verifying efforts and outcomes 

• communicating one's work with others 

• expressing and celebrating one's creative accomplishments 

• providing a foundation by which to assess growth and change, and 
set future goals. 



Before using portfolios, teachers should consider the following planning 

51 

issues. 

• What is the purpose of the portfolio? 

• What items should be included? 

• How will the items be selected and organized? 

• How will the portfolios be stored? 

• How will the portfolios be assessed? 

• What formats will be used to allow students to share their portfolios? 



GT.65 



What should be included to really show what students know? Ask 
students. Let them help decide. 



Evidence of progress 
toward year s goal 



Items that indicate 
transfer of learning 
(beyond the classroom 
into life) 



Things that convey 
learning activities 
(explicit and implicit 
artifacts from lessons) 



Items that 

demonstrate "My best 

work to date" 




Evidence of self- 
reflection and self- 
knowledge 



Items that tell the story 
of the journey of the 
year 



Things that show 
growth and change 
(skills interests, extra- 
curricular activities, 
attitudes) 



52 



Portfolios are largely managed by students to develop their 
organizational skills, and extend their responsibility and ownership in 
their work. Students are encouraged to produce their best work, value 
their own progress and select products for their portfolio which 
represent what they are learning." 

Each product placed in the portfolio has the student's name and the date 
on it, so growth over time can be determined. Each product also has a 
caption or brief note attached to explain, in the student's own words, 
why this product was selected. The products not selected for the 
portfolio are sent home so parents consistently have examples of the 
student's work. 53 

Students also produce items at home that show their interests and 
talents. Throughout the year, parents may encourage children to take a 
few examples of what they have done well at home to school, to include 
in their portfolios. 53 



) 



Teachers use the portfolio process to teach students to critique their 
work and reflect on its merits. While students review their work to 
select products to go in their portfolios, teachers prompt students' 
analysis and decision-making skills by asking them to think about these 
questions. 

• What really makes something your best work? 

• What examples do you want to keep in your portfolio to represent 
what you are learning throughout the year? 



GT.66 



• How is this product different from other pieces of your work? 

• How does the product show something important that you think or 
feel? 

• How does this product show something important that you have 
learned? 

• How does this product demonstrate the progress you've made in a 
specific topic or subject area?" 

The student's portfolio may contain many kinds of items, such as 
product or work samples; testimonials; self-evaluations or evaluations 
by others; biographical or journal records; documentation of 
participation in events or special activities; honours, prizes, awards or 
other recognition; published reviews; photos, audio or videocassettes 
and scrapbooks.' 



The 'theme' of the Total 
Talent Portfolio might best 
be summarized in the form 
of two questions: 

• What are the very best 
things we know and can 
record about a student? 

• What are the very best 
things we can do to 
capitalize on this 
information? 

Renzulli, 1994, 
p. 105 



The Total Talent Portfolio 

The total talent portfolio (Renzulli, 1 994) offers a way for teachers and 
other school personnel to provide opportunities, resources and 
encouragement that support escalated student involvement in both 
required and self-selected activities. 

Rather than identifying high-potential students by a score on a test, 
teachers can identify and assess students' strengths by way of a total 
talent portfolio which looks at academic abilities, interests, motivational 
styles, ways of expression, learning environment and intellectual styles. 
By broadening the identification process, many students with great 
potential can be included in gifted programs. 

The total talent portfolio focuses on specific learning characteristics that 
serve as a basis for talent development. The approach uses both 
traditional and performance-based assessment to determine three 
dimensions of the learner — abilities, interests and preferred learning 
styles (see chart on next page). Schools use portfolios to decide which 
talent development opportunities to offer a particular student through 
regular classes, enrichment clusters and special services. 



The easiest way to use the portfolio is to prepare a folder for each 
student. On the inside front cover of the folder, affix a copy of the 
chart. When strength areas of the student have been identified, the 
teacher circles those areas on the chart. Teachers then have a quick 
comprehensive picture of strengths that can be addressed in various 
learning experiences. 



GT.67 



^ 



The total talent portfolio does not replace the cumulative record folder 
held for each student. 57 



Abilities 


Interests 


Style Preferences 


Maximum 

Performance 

Indicators 


Interest Areas 


Instructional Styles 
Preferences 


Learning 
Environment 
Preferences 


Thinking 

Styles 

Preferences 


Expression 

Style 
Preference 


Tests 

• Standardized 

• Teacher-made 
Course grades 
Teacher ratings 
Product Evaluation 

• Written 

• Oral 

• Visual 

• Musical 

• Constructed 

Level of participation in 
learning activities 

Degree of interaction 
with others 


Fine arts 

Crafts 

Literary 

Historical 

Mathematical /logical 

Physical sciences 

Life sciences 

Political/judicial 

Athletic/recreation 

Marketing/business 

Drama/dance 

Musical performance 

Musical composition 

Managerial/business 

Photography 

Film/video 

Computers 

Other (Specify) 


Recitation and drill 

Peer tutoring 

Lecture 

lecture/discussion 

Discussion 

(iuided independent 
study* 

Learning/interest centre 

Simulation, role playing, 
dramatization, guided 
fantasy 

learning games 

Replicative reports or 
projects* 

Investigative reports or 
projects* 

Unguided independent 
study* 

Internship* 

Apprenticeship* 

*with or without a mentor 


Intcr/lntra 
Personal 

• Self-oriented 

• Peer-oriented 

• Adult-oriented 

• Combined 

Physical 

• Sound 

• Heat 

• Light 

• Design 

• Mobility 

• Time of day 

• Food intake 

• Seating 


Analytic 
(school smart) 

Sjnthetic/ 
creative 
(creative, 
inventive) 

Practical/ 
contextual 
(street smart) 

Legislative 

Executive 

Judicial 


Written 
Oral 

Manipulative 

Discussion 

Display 

Dramatization 

Artistic 

Graphic 

Commercial 

Service 


Ref: General tests and 
measurements literature 


Ref: Renzulli. 1977b 


Ref: Renzulli & Smith, 
1979 


Ref: Amabile, 
1983; Dunn & 
Dunn. 1978; 
Gardner. 1983 


Ref: Sternberg. 
1984. 1988 


Ref: Renzulli & 
Reis, 1985 



The total talent portfolio and other talent profiles extend and focus the 
traditional emphasis on multiple-criteria in the identification process 
(Treffinger & Feldhusen, 1996). These talent portfolio/profiles are 
dynamic, task-specific and inclusive of many contextual factors rather 
than just a composite index based on several test scores or rating scales. 

Positive learning experiences are provided in students" areas of talent 
strength, such as art, drama, music, industrial arts, technology, 
invention, home economics, photography, social or behavioural 
sciences, humanities or philosophy, math and science, foreign 
languages or athletics. The assumption is that students can develop a 
better sense of self-efficacy when they have opportunities for 
appropriate and challenging instruction within the domains of their 
talent strengths. 



GT.68 



The total talent portfolio provides one method of gathering and 
recording information about students' abilities, interests and style 
preferences which enables teachers and other school personnel to make 
informed decisions in identification procedures. 



Developing Individualized Program Plans (IPPs) 

The IPP is a written commitment of intent by an educational team. It is 
meant to ensure the provision of appropriate programming for students 
with special needs and to act as a working document. It also provides a 
record of student progress. Modifications in programming to meet the 
educational needs of students should be reflected and documented in 
each student's individualized program plan. 

Preparation of the IPP provides the opportunity for parents, teachers, 
school-based administrators and others involved with the student to 
address the learning needs of the student. The school administrator has 
the responsibility of ensuring that the IPP is prepared and maintained. 

The IPP is a mandatory requirement of Alberta Learning for each 
student identified as having special needs and should include the items 
presented in the following checklist. 



Included / 



Essential Information 



assessed level of educational performance 

strengths and areas of need 

long-term goals and short-term objectives 

assessment procedures for short-term objectives 

special education and related services to be provided 

review dates, results and recommendations 

relevant medical information 

required classroom accommodations (any changes to 

instructional strategies, assessment procedures, 

materials, resources, facilities or equipment) 

transition plans 



An IPP should describe what the student knows and can do, what and 
how the student should learn next, where the instruction will take place, 
who will provide it, how long it may take and what the student will do 
to demonstrate learning. 



GT.69 



Transition Planning 

Transition planning is an integral part of the development of an IPP 
and should be undertaken collaboratively with the student, family, and 
any other services and agencies involved with the student. Transition 
planning should include the identification of any recommendations, 
strategies and resources which have proven to be effective, and any 
other special services a student who is gifted may require. 

IPP Process 

The process for developing an individualized program plan is outlined 
in the following stages: 

1 . gather information 

2. set direction 

3. develop the IPP 

4. implement the IPP 

5. review the IPP. 

Although the stages are given in sequence, teachers may vary the 
emphasis and order to meet individual needs. Several stages may be 
worked on simultaneously. It is important to emphasize that a team 
approach underlies the IPP process. As the graphic on the next page 
implies, the process is ongoing throughout the life of the IPP. 



GT.70 



The following graphic represents an overview of the five stages in the 
IPP process. It may be used as a reference to ensure that the steps in 
developing, implementing and reviewing an IPP are addressed. Note 
the interaction among the stages indicated by arrows. The dotted 
arrows emanating from stage five indicate that during the review it may 
be advisable to refer back to the preceding stages in the IPP process. 



1. 



5. 



GATHER INFORMATION 


2. 
< — > 


SET DIRECTION 


• Review all student records, 
including previous IPP. 

• Consult parents, students, 
previous teachers and others. 

• Observe student. 

• Review student's current work. 

• Conduct further assessment as 
necessary. 


• Establish an IPP team. 

• Strengthen parent and student 
involvement. 

• Determine the student's 
strengths, needs and interests. 

• Clarify priorities for the 
student. 



3. 



DEVELOP THE IPP 



Identify goals and objectives. 
Determine monitoring plan. 



I 



REVIEW THE IPP 


4. 


IMPLEMENT THE IPP 


• Review IPP periodically 
according to monitoring plan. 

• Review progress and make 
recommendations at year end 
or school transfer. 

• Plan for transition. 


• Share IPP with all people 
involved. 

• Put IPP into practice. 

• Engage in ongoing evaluation 
of student progress. 

• Adjust objectives as required. 


'J^ 





For more information on developing IPPs, refer to Individualized 
Program Plans, Book 3 in the Programming for Students with Special 
Needs series. 

The major focus of the IPP for students who are gifted and talented 
must be placed on strengths in higher levels of thinking, creativity and 
task commitment, and on providing opportunities for developing these 
strengths in relatively unstructured learning situations. 



GT.71 



While there is no singular profile of a high-potential student, these 
students display at least some of the following characteristies or traits in 
varying degrees and combinations. These traits require distinctive 
educational responses as indicated in the following table. 58 

Traits of Students who are Gifted which Require 
Distinctive Educational Responses 



Characteristic 


Student's Educational Need 


• ability to learn quickly, efficiently; 


• progress through content at 


rapid pace of information processing 


individual pace or developmental rate 


• ability to move quickly through the 


• require less introduction and practice 


stages of intellectual development 


of skills and is able to spend more 


and at the same time be more 


time on application, synthesis and 


advanced than chronological peers at 


evaluation of ideas 


each stage of development 




• unusual capacity for perceiving. 


• explore content and processes of 


processing and producing ideas and 


learning at a level commensurate with 


solutions to problems 


abilities 


• advanced ability to see abstractions. 


• explore ideas in greater depth and 


readily make connections to new 


breadth 


contexts and work at varying levels 




of complexity 




• advanced ability to use regulatory or 


• initiate, plan and direct personal 


metacognitive processes to guide 


learning, and engage in independent 


thinking 


study 


• capacity for perseverance, ability to 


• allow flexible scheduling for in-depth 


sustain long periods of concentration 


and long-term studies 


and attention 




• capacity for higher-level thinking; 


• pursue topics and problems which 


demonstrate eclectic interests; 


pique interest, and expose student to 


enthusiasm, fascination and intense 


a wide spectrum of ideas and issues 


involvement in a particular problem. 




area of study or form of human 




expression 




• sophisticated facility for expression 


• communicate in various forms to 




various audiences 


• advanced ability to analyze, evaluate 


• higher-level thinking skills 


and hypothesize ideas; apply 




• propensity for inventive, versatile 


• reconceptualize existing knowledge 


thought 


and create new knowledge in an area 




of study 



J 



GT.72 



General Considerations 

Students who are gifted and talented are capable of mastering the 
regular curriculum at a much faster pace and higher level of proficiency 
than students in the general school population. It is important to 
provide some alternative means that will allow students with varying 
ability levels to cover basic material at different rates and in ways that 
are compatible with a variety of learning styles. 



Students who are gifted and talented should be provided with 
opportunities to identify and pursue advanced topics and areas of study 
that hold particular fascination for them. An 1PP should include 
procedures for allowing students who are gifted numerous opportunities 
to: 

explore a wider variety of potential interests 

identify general areas of special interest 

focus or frame problems within these areas 

pursue these self-selected problems in a manner of a first-hand 

inquirer rather than a passive lesson learner. 






A comprehensive 
assessment incorporating 
high-ceiling measures of 
specialized abilities, self- 
concept, motivation, 
values, career interests, 
and preferred educational 
environments is needed for 
individualized educational 
planning. 



Pyryt, 1996, 
p. 257 



It is important that the following fundamental principles be considered 
in effective IPP preparation 



59 



Allow adequate time for thoughtful planning and training in 
instructional design. 

Involve a co-operative planning model utilizing input from many 
different sources. 

Use accurate assessment data that is relevant to the instructional 
decisions made. 

Provide for the utilization of many different instructional activities. 

Encourage student participation. 

Consider each of these basic components of an effective 
instructional program for the gifted and talented: individualized 
basics, appropriate enrichment, effective acceleration, 
independence and self-direction, values and personal development. 

Remember, the IPP is concerned with methods of finding and 
solving problems, making inquiries and doing research, as well as 
with curriculum content. 

Be as concerned with the unknown as with the known and with the 
future as with the past or present. 

Ensure record keeping is explicit and objective, and involves the 
student directly in the process. 



GT.73 



Monitor systematically on a frequent schedule. Students who are 
gifted may meet the objectives before the identified review date. 

Provide a basis for effective co-ordination of learning resources at 
school, at home and in the community. 

Provide a foundation for effective co-ordination of regular 
educational programming and special educational services. 

Remember, an individualized program does not mean the student 
learns only in isolation. 



Communicating with Parents of a Child 
who is Gifted 

Parents play a critical role in facilitating their children's continued 
affective and intellectual growth. If they are to make responsible 
decisions concerning their children who are gifted, parents need to be 
well-informed and involved appropriately in their children's 
programs. 

A partnership paradigm enables parents and the school or system- 
based resource personnel to work collaboratively on behalf of 
exceptional children. A primary goal of this approach is the 
development of co-operation and trust. Friendly, open 
communication with parents forms the basis of a desired mutual 
support system for children who are gifted. 

Experience suggests that interactions with parents will be as varied as 
the range of concerns which may prompt an interview. By 
anticipating what parents of children who are gifted may need to 
know, teachers can look forward to a rewarding exchange of 
information. 



GT.74 



A parent need-to-know list might include the following. 

• How do the school's philosophy, goals and objectives encompass 
programming for the gifted — conception of giftedness, 
identification procedures, range of interventions? 



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• What are the characteristics of the gifted? 

• What are the educational, social and emotional 
benefits of children who are gifted being with 
other children similar in nature? 

• What are the psychological needs of the gifted and 
how can parents guide their children in handling 
peer criticism, intense emotional responses to the 
events, issues and ills in society? 

• How parents can be involved in programming for 
their children who are gifted; e.g., IPP 
development, mentors, homework monitors. See 
the next page for suggestions for parent 
involvement in the IPP process. Also see 
Appendix 20, page GT.246, for a Tips for Parents 
sheet to help parents prepare for the IPP meeting. 

In addition to the formal parent-teacher interview, 
communication may be facilitated through 
newsletters, parent information seminars and 
electronic resources. See page GT.78 for questions to 
help parents communicate effectively with the school. 
Also see Appendix 21, page GT.247, for a sample 
communication form which may be used to help 
clarify the method and frequency of home-school 
contacts. 



Parent Teacher Conferences 

Parent-teacher or student-led conferences are 
opportunities to share expectations and applaud 
progress. These conferences also provide 
opportunities for parents to become actively involved 
in their children's programs. Preparation ensures 
effective communication. It is helpful if parents 
come to the conference informed. Before 
conferences, parents should review children's work 
and report cards. They should think about the 
learning styles, study habits, special interests and 
skills, medical problems and recent experiences that 



GT.75 



A could affect behaviour in school. 60 The tips sheet on the following 

page includes suggestions to help parents prepare for parent-teacher 
conferences. It may be helpful to send this sheet home. 



Parent Involvement in the IPP Process 

Parents provide unique perspectives about their children's 
personalities, development and learning. Open communication and 
co-operation between home and school increase opportunities for 
students with special needs to experience success. Parents should be 
included as active members of IPP teams as early in the process as 
possible. Teachers should encourage parents to: 

• ask questions if they need clarification about the purpose of the IPP 
or the process to be followed in its development 

• specify how and to what degree, they wish to become involved in 
the development of their children's IPPs 

• contact the school if they have questions about upcoming IPP 
meetings; e.g., agendas, who will be attending, or if there are 
specific persons that they would like to attend 

• write down any questions 

• ask for clarification of anything that seems unclear at meetings 

• ask for copies of the goals and objectives of draft IPPs so that they 
can familiarize themselves before meetings 

• think of their children's strengths and areas of need, and write 
down any goals or expectations that they would like to see included 
in IPPs 

• inform the school of any general health and medical concerns that 
they have for their children 

• provide reports and other information about their children that they 
feel are important 

• inform the school of any professionals and agencies providing 
service to their children 

• ask for clarification of any IPP goals or objectives that are unclear 
— it is important that all IPP team members have a common 
understanding of the goals and objectives 

• ask how they may reinforce any IPP goals at home 

• discuss their children's involvement in the development of IPPs 

• contact the school if they have concerns about IPPs. They can 
request reviews of IPPs if they believe changes are necessary. 



GT.76 



w„ 



Tips 




for a Belter Meet-the- 
Teacher Conference 



m 

# 

# 
# 

# 
v 

# 
* 

# 



Get to know your child's teachers early in the school year, 
alerting them to problems or concerns and sharing information 
that might help them understand your child better. 

Plan for conferences. Talk to your child; review report cards. 
Glance over school work. Think about learning styles and study 
habits. 

Ask if the child can attend parent-teacher conferences; inquire 
about student-led conferences. 

Ask questions about what's expected of your child: how the 
class is structured, what a typical day is like and what tests will 
be taken or scheduled. 

Ask questions about how your child works: is the work easy or 
hard; how are relationships with teachers and students; is there a 
subject in which he or she is less motivated; what are the child's 
special interests or strengths? 

Decide with the teacher what needs to be done to help your 
child. Set goals, with timelines, for what the teacher, you and 
the child will do. Agree on plans and on special assistance 
before you leave. 

Talk with your child afterward and discuss what was decided. 

Follow up. Implement your end of any agreement. Keep in 
touch with the teacher. If the plan isn't working or new 
problems develop, call the teacher and ask for another meeting. 

Ask for other help if you aren't getting results. If the teacher 
isn't helpful or progress isn't being made, talk with a 
supervisor. Call the principal's office to see who you should 
talk to next. 



GT.77 



; 



Questions to Help Parents Communicate 
Effectively with the School 



i 



8 



10 
II 



How does the school ensure that basic skills and concepts 
are learned? 



How does the school provide learning activities that are at 
an appropriate level and pace for each student? 

How does the school provide experience in creative thinking 
and problem solving? 

How does the school develop logical thinking abilities? 

How does the school stimulate students to use their 
imaginations? 

How does the school develop students' self-awareness, and 
acceptance of capabilities, interests and needs? 

How does the school encourage students to set realistic 
goals? 

How does the school develop independence, self-direction 
and discipline in learning? 

How does the school provide guidance in relating 
intellectually, artistically and socially with others? 

How does the school provide access to information about a 
variety of topics above and beyond the curriculum? 

How does the school provide access to a wide range of 
reading materials? 



GT.78 



Involving Parents as Volunteers 62 

Parents of children who are gifted can be involved as volunteers for 
various projects connected with the program. There are many ways to 
involve parents as volunteers in a gifted program. The volunteer 
program should be flexible, allowing parents with diverse skills and 
interests to contribute as their time and schedules allow. Some ways 
in which parents can be involved as volunteers follow. 

• Organize or participate in local parent support groups for the 
gifted. 

• Attend conferences on gifted education and share ideas about 
programming learned from such conferences. 

• Become a spokesperson for the gifted program by making 
presentations at school board meetings, service clubs and parent 
groups. 

• Assist the teacher in the classroom during activities requiring a low 
student-adult ratio. 

• Become involved in a mentor program with one or more students 
who share a common interest. 

• Develop instructional materials. This may range from laminating 
and duplicating, to designing instructional games or developing 
independent study units in an area in which a parent has expertise. 

• Organize a library of materials about children who are gifted and 
gifted education. Often this can be done co-operatively with a 
school or public library. 

• Accompany a class or smaller groups of students on field trips or 
assist in planning off-campus experiences. 

• Participate in fund-raising for the program. In the course of raising 
money for special equipment or field trips, parents raise the 
program's visibility in the community. 

• Edit or write for a newsletter or journal on students who are gifted. 



GT.79 



Completed IPP Samples 

The following IPP — Student Profiles, IPP — Student Plans and 
accompanying IPP samples describe the learning needs of two 
students who are gifted. The sample IPP for the junior high student 
includes one sample long-term goal which has been broken down into 
short-term objectives to illustrate the process. See Appendix 22, page 
GT.248 for a blank IPP — Student Plan. 

Essential information to be included in an IPP has been defined on 
page GT.69. Formats may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and 
among schools. Staff should refer to the guidelines in their respective 
jurisdictions to create a format that best meets their needs while 
incorporating the essential elements. 

Case Studies Used in Developing Sample IPPs 
Mathilde Maison is a bright six-year-old girl integrated into a Grade 
1 classroom. She is extremely sensitive, and bursting with curiosity 
and ideas. She is verbal but dislikes writing. She has advanced 
academic skills but is immature socially. Since she acquires skills 
and concepts quickly, she is easily frustrated with errors made by 
herself and others. Mathilde will be encouraged to acquire skills in 
diplomacy and tolerance for frustration, while at the same time 
encouraged to feel a sense of challenge with hard work (not more 
work). 

Jordan Jones, recently identified in the moderately gifted range, is a 
Grade 8 student in a large junior high school. Jordan displays a 
consistently positive attitude toward academic pursuits and his marks 
qualify him for the honour roll each term. Strengths in mathematics 
are well beyond grade level. He sets high standards for himself and, 
given the choice, he would prefer to work by himself — avoiding the 
risk of having classmates jeopardize his perfectionistic tendencies. 
Jordan enjoys reading, music, opportunities to engage in creative 
verbal activities and golf. Goals for Jordan include compacting of the 
regular math curriculum to allow for enrichment and acceleration. He 
will also be encouraged to participate in competitive debate. 



GT.80 



IPP — Student Profile 63 

maihf/d^ /Daiscn Teacher: M'S ■ F 6ura.fe55 



Name: 

Date: $t(>1 &> A* 

Learning Styles/Strengths: 

flrllhroe-tiC operations 
Vocabulary 

Ab6+r<* c t -rKirkk.!^ 
Scr\se. of Komoor 



Student Interests: 
tieoud'ina 

Science 



Grade/Class: 



I 



School: Weaxitujbroak 



Results from Achievement Tests 



6r*i.±) 



Name of Test 



leading Pym. 






&rki IheGtAiiic 



K«9 flWK 



Date Given 



5epi fa% 



Oc-\ l<\* 



Oc-\ht 



Result 



/ft depend. ^*v. ~ £r 3 
In6iroc-t>ooa I Lev - <ni'^ $r.$ 



Vocabulary - ^7 *7o lie 
Comprehension - *$ •/« , I 



0\)er«.l| £r. eauiV -«3 



t 



Results from Formal Testing 



Name of Test 


Date Given 


Result 


UI5C- ur 


N)<wAu 


See S'tuden-f 
record -fil* 





















Special Abilities: 
5"fr^ru» irO*d«A«"tiOA 
£n-fhosi«5m (or learnfA^ 



Teacher Observations: , ,, . ± a/riu 

,frUiKilde v 6 vor\^^ A ^ her "telle are «>ela1»«ciy 

devoid o< <JeWil- . oc __en<U<& 

aS5i 3 AmCntS.. ■ oe-e^S ^« «- 

Parent Observations: ., « .„ Rxrbie doll • 

.VkL-thiUe dcsiAiss cU>1kves for her D* 

• l*4< o-f ersfoora«e*ner>rT to 

. (TMhtlde re^es M« ° n 



Summary of Needs: 

• Chall Crvoe irsall aca<Jem I C <*^e «S 

• a$Si*3+fl*Ce ir\ cepi*<\ W»+K ^rovl'-w.-Viorv and <*Aaer 

. ofperW.tieS +c pUuj* leadership role in co-operate learn, *« S ^l 

• 5kIHs+0 address impulsive beKav/ioor 

. cn<r*ur^e*ea+ jr. ^akirxg i a«M ecfoal , em^'OA-l r,s*S. 



Student's vision, goals for self: 
. -to develop ceA-C.J.nce, self- ***<"•«*«■«• 
. +e -da mere •Uxb.r^iOA (A^M) m Verbal c 4mmw i^i^ mmd >MSU«l 

ole4uil in ar-lujorlt- 

♦Append samples of student work 



GT.81 



^ IPP — Student Plan 6 

Name: ff)*jhilc}* fflatScr ) Teacher. /?>3. ^ Sorties 5 

Date: Jg^^A? Grade/Class: I School: ffleadeul feraofe. 

Based on the student profile, check the planning options below that will be part of the student's 
individualized program plan. 

Appropriate Learning Levels Curriculum Differentiation 

□ Acceleration Q' Content 

□ Telescoping IjK Processes 
B' Compacting 3^ Products 

Enrichment Opportunities Other 

□^Exploration activities □ Special programs 

3^ Thinking, research and planning skills Of Mentoring 

□ Individual study option □ Apprenticeship 

What are the intended student outcomes? 

• Ccrs-iifiOld mo-fixJa + iOA 4f learn.*- 

•an enlace** re P d 0tf e o$ hi^er- o^r */,,„ fei*a 5*'"* , »« ^^^ 
retrieval skills a*\d organ iia^.cwal skills. 

• grou;1K ir. r O ,v-0denee 4o "U*tc i«icHec4oaV r.j s fes. 

How will the outcomes be assessed? 

. leather ° b * e Tt^\ aoJ'X**^ t** «**«««** - "Ifid-J •** *~* U 

• assessment o^ s*»»l *P*\ . ' ^.^ £>r*l a*<j .oritte^) 

. 5eK A55e$5rr>e^-i- 

• peer- a sseii merv + 

Criteria for evaluation of outcomes (set with student). 

.acKi*ve~e^-t -+e S "t 8a»^5 +„-dav aSS-V«e^+S 

- de^c^l^td aa^i.ea+.o^ ,4 fife, lis •* d ~T+« d ~V «3 
.eu.-dr R «e ^yal.-*/ sarnies in 5+u<Je,-* ^-"♦^'■o 



J 



Members of planning team: 



/7)rs- 5 *"**<*. 4 ess; /^r. Rromn , £e$6or<.ei. 



T-cacht r, ftaihildtL Whiten) for. *,\d tT)^. /fa'Son, Pgr^\H 



Review Date: AW 23-/^% 



GT.82 



IPP — Student Profile 



65 



Name: 


Jordan Jones 




Teacher: 


Date: 


Oct. 26/99 Grade/Class: 


8 


School: 



Mr. Morrow (homeroom) 
Hopewell Junior High 



Learning Styles/Strengths: 
Prefers discussion, simulations 
Strong vocabulary 
Verbal/non-verbal reasoning 



Student Interests: 

Reading 

Golf 

Chess 

Plays clarinet 



Results from Achievement Tests 



Name of Test 


Date Given 


Result 


AB Acht. Tests 
(Gr. 6) 


06/97 


Exceptional Range 





















Results from Formal Testing 



Name of Test 


Date Given 


Result 


WISC-III 


06/03/98 


F.S. 140 


Renzulli/Smith Learning 
Styles Inventory 


09/03/98 


See file 















Special Abilities: 
Creative thinker (fluent, original). 
Exceptional math strengths. 



Teacher Observations: 



Parent Observations: 



Summary of Needs: 
Co-operative learning strategies. 
Counselling to address perfectionistic trait. 



Student's vision, goals for self: 

• To achieve Grade 12 matriculation as quickly as possible. 

• To improve skills in individual sports (golf, snowboarding). 

• To participate in formal debate competition. 



♦Append samples of student work 



GT.83 



) 



IPP — Student Plan 66 

Name: Jordan Jones Teacher: Mr. Morrow (homeroom) 



Date: Oct. 26/99 Grade/Class: 8 School: Hopewell Junior High 

Based on the student profile, check the planning options below that will be part of the student's 
individualized program plan. 

Appropriate Learning Levels Curriculum Differentiation 

121 Acceleration 21 Content 

□ Telescoping 2) Processes 
12) Compacting 2) Products 

Enrichment Opportunities Other 

□ Exploration activities 2) Special programs 
121 Thinking, research and planning skills G Mentoring 

121 Individual study option G Apprenticeship 

What are the intended student outcomes? 

• demonstrated performance in mathematical skills and concepts beyond the Grade 8 
prescriptive curriculum. 

• an enlarged battery of social skills implemented in small group and team activities. 

• confidence in the development of cogent arguments as reflected in debating presentations. 

How will the outcomes be assessed? 

• tests (standardized, teacher designed). 

• teacher observation/debate coach observation. 

• self-concept inventory. 



Criteria for evaluation of outcomes (set with student). 

• test scores 

• evidence of successful group participation/teacher observation. 

• application of higher-level thinking skills; e.g., synthesis, evaluation, in day-to-day assignments. 

Members of planning team: Mr. Morrow (homeroom), 

Mrs. Billings (counsellor), other subject teachers, 

Mr. and Mrs. Jones, Jordan Jones. 

Review Date: January 4, 2000 



GT.84 



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GT.92 



Characteristics and Identification Procedures 
for underserved populations 

Several populations have traditionally been underserved in programs 
for the gifted; for example, girted females, gifted-learning disabled, as 
well as high-potential students with one or more of the following: 
behavioural problems, minority status, physical and/or sensory 
disabilities, or high-potential students who underachieve. 

Gifted Females 

(Fox, Benbow & Perkins, 1983; Butler-Por, 1993; Eccles, 1985; 
Hollinger & Flemming, 1988; Kerr, 1991; Kramer, 1991; Sadker& 
Sadker, 1994) 

Gifted females are under-represented in many programs. Research 
indicates that despite early intellectual promise and extraordinary 
potential, a great portion of girls' gifts remain undeveloped. The 
reasons are multiple and complex. 

Factors contributing to the under-representation of girls who are gifted 
in programs for the gifted include: 

• a shift from the high aspirations and consistent high performance 
of elementary school years to a lesser involvement with 
achievement goals in adolescence 

• a decline in self-confidence and an intense social awareness in the 
teen years often combine to prompt high-potential females to deny 
their gifts, abilities and accomplishments to ensure social 
acceptance 

• a resistance to embracing new tasks or taking risks out of fear that 
imperfect performance will expose their fragile concept of their 
own high ability 

• biases in classroom dynamics that favour boys over girls in 
accepting responses to questions posed (Sadker & Sadker, 1994) 

• biases in how females are portrayed in instructional texts and 
visuals (Sadker & Sadker, 1994). 

Interventions that support a more balanced representation of girls in 
gifted programs include: 

• selecting instructional resources which reflect an unbiased view of 
female roles 

• providing guidance in academic and career planning 

• enhancing the self-confidence of girls who are gifted by reinforcing 
belief in their abilities and valuing their efforts. 



GT.93 



Gifted-Learning Disabled (GLD) 

Many factors contribute to the under-representation of the 
gifted-learning disabled segment in the gifted population. Definitions 
which can be broadly interpreted in a variety of ways prompt 
practitioners to develop programming which reflects their particular 
understanding of the concept. In some instances, this diversity may be 
confusing to the point where teachers and parents respond to generally 
held notions about either exceptionality rather than attending to the 
unique attributes of each. Sometimes, the symptoms of either 
exceptionality (giftedness, learning disability) may mask or overlap, 
making identification difficult. A typical gifted-learning disabled 
student having been assessed with a Weschler Intelligence Scale will 
have a profile where perceptual organizational scores are superior to 
those measuring attentional or sequencing abilities. Such discrepancies 
and any number of the following characteristics may prevent or hamper 
a GLD student from being accurately identified. 



Disabilities depress these 

children 's IQ and 

achievement scores, 

disqualifying them for gifted 

programs; in addition, high 

intelligence enables [some 

of] them to compensate 

well enough for their 
weaknesses to maintain 
grade level expectations, 
which prevents them from 
being detected as learning- 
disabled or qualifying for 
special education services. 
Catch 22! 

Silverman, 1989, 
p. 37 



Characteristics of the Gifted-learning Disabled 67 

Characteristics of gifted-learning disabled students which hamper 
identification as gifted, include: 

frustration with inability to master certain academic skills 

uneven academic pattern with strengths in mathematics and 

weaknesses in language-arts areas 

written language difficulties 

require more time to process language and respond 

overwhelmed by input from multiple sources 

difficulty with tasks requiring multiple skills 

learned helplessness 

general lack of motivation 

disruptive classroom behaviour 

supersensitivity 

failure to complete assignments 

lack of organization skills 

demonstration of poor listening and concentration skills 

deficiency in tasks emphasizing memory and perceptual abilities 

unusual visual sensitivity to light 

unrealistic self-expectations 

low self-esteem 

absence of social skills with some peers 

hyperactivity. 






GT.94 



The following are characteristics of the gifted which often mask 
learning disabilities (LD): 6 

exceptional analytical abilities 

high levels of creativity 

advanced problem-solving skills 

ability to think of divergent ideas and solutions 

interest and ability in pursuing broad-based, thematic topics 

enjoyment of conversation on complex and challenging subjects 

wide variety of interests 

good memory 

specific artistic, musical or mechanical aptitude 

strong vocabulary skills 

strong mathematical skills 

spatial abilities 

task commitment 

high readiness to learn 

sophisticated sense of humour. 



The Crossover Profile'" 

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See Appendix 23, page GT.249 for the Crossover 
Profile, a composite of the crossover student which 
consists of both gifted and LD characteristics. 

Identification Procedures 

• Use multidisciplinary assessment tools; e.g., 
psychological assessment, achievement measures, 
social/emotional observations, behaviour analysis. 

• Look for GLD among underachieving students. 



Gifted Underachievers 

For underachievers who are gifted, a large 
discrepancy exists between school achievement and 
students' potential. Underachievement may range 
from mild (the student attains high marks by doing 
what is expected and no more) to severe (when the 
student may be failing grades or has not learned a 
basic skill, such as reading). 



Characteristics of Underachievers 

Characteristics include: 

• low self-esteem 

• lack of self-confidence 

• sense of low personal control over one's own life 



GT.95 






• lack of clear relationship between effort and outcome 

• blame shifted to others for lack of success in school 

• perfectionism. 



There is evidence to 
suggest that as high as 45 
per cent of identified gifted 

children with IQ scores 

above 130 also have grade 

point averages that are 

lower than average 

Johnson, 1981, in 

Reid & McGuire, 

1995, p. 14 



The foregoing attributes signal teachers to examine the factors which 
contribute to underachievement of high potential learners: 

• emotional issues, including dysfunctional families, attention- 
seeking behaviour, perfectionism and depression 

• inappropriate curriculum 

• learning disabilities and/or poor self-regulation concerns, usually 
as primary or secondary contributors 

• social and behavioural concerns, such as inappropriate peer group, 
behavioural problems (see behavioural problems on the next page), 
poor social skills (Baum, Renzulli & Hebert, 1995). 



Reversal of underachievement is a complex multi-faceted process, 
begins with identification and unfolds through a variety of 
interventions involving student, teachers and parents. 



Ii 



The diagram below illustrates the contributors to underachievement. 
some possible Type III (Individual/Small-Group Investigation of Real 
Problems) interventions and some precursors to achievement. 6 (See 
page GT.22 for information on Type III interventions.) 



NEED IDENTIFICATION 



NEED GRATIFICATION 




GT.96 



. . . such information 
implies that when a child is 
not well adjusted, morally 
advanced, healthy, and so 
on, then he or she cannot 
be gifted. 

Reid & McGuire, 
1995, p. 2 



Behavioural Problems 

Reid & McGuire (1995), in their review of the literature pertaining to 
high-potential students with behavioural problems, cite several 
contributing variables: 

• lack of challenging and relevant content/curricula 

• use of inappropriate instructional approaches/strategies 

• use of extrinsic rewards and punishment for learning and 
classroom or behaviour management 

• maintenance of climate that encourages conformity and convergent 
thinking 

• insensitivity to individual differences 

• emphasis on restricted, categorical labelling 

• de-emphasis of environmental, cultural and social/emotional 
variables. 



These authors hypothesize '"that children and youth who exhibit 
irritating behaviours are less likely to be presumed gifted by their 
teachers, and are more likely to be misidentified and overlooked for 
appropriate [gifted] services'' (Reid & McGuire, 1995). 



To say a test is biased is to 
charge that it is prejudiced 

or unfair to groups or 

individuals characterized as 

different from the majority 

of test takers. These 

groups may include ethnic 

minorities, women or men, 

individuals whose first 

language is not English, 

and persons with 
handicapping conditions. 



Tittle, 1994, 
p. 6315 



Minority Status 

Alberta is a multicultural, multiracial, multiethnic and multilingual 
province. Census data indicates that in Alberta, the numbers of students 
from minority backgrounds (students with cultural, racial, ethnic and/or 
linguistic backgrounds that differ from European) continue to increase. 
This same data also suggest that being economically disadvantaged 
compromises the quality of education for many of these students from 
minority backgrounds. 

While there are many inter- as well as intra-group differences, it has 
been noted that the greater the differences, especially linguistically, the 
fewer the numbers of identified students who are gifted. In 1 992, a 
review of the transcripts of selected immigrant students receiving 
English as a Second Language (ESL) funding documented that while 
the provincial high school drop-out rate was 34 per cent, the rate was 61 
per cent for students labelled ESL. The value placed on language 
proficiency, specifically English language proficiency, greatly reduces 
the opportunity for such students to be identified and referred for gifted 
education. 



GT.97 



^ 



The use of multiple criteria 

[for identification] reduces 

the chance that a gifted 

child with specific 

disabilities or a history of 

underachievement will be 

ignored It serves social 

justice by increasing the 

possibility of recognition to 

poor, minority and other 

systematically different 

groups of children 



Shore et al , 
1991, p. 49 



The driving force behind 

the efforts to increase the 

representation of minorities 

and disadvantaged 

populations in the 

programs for the gifted is 

essentially one of achieving 

the twin goals of equity and 

excellence. 

Passow, Monks & 

Heller, 1993, 

p. 899 



. . . dependence upon 

present-day achievement 

and intelligence tests alone 

for the selection of gifted 

minority students denies 

many students a well- 
deserved opportunity to 

develop their abilities. 

Baldwin, 1991, 
p. 426 



J 



Often, systemic racism is explicitly or implicitly cited as the root cause 
of underrepresentation. Systemic racism expresses itself in various 
practices. First, there are selective referrals resulting from teachers' 
attitudes toward students from minority backgrounds. Also, due to test 
bias, minority students often are overlooked in the selection process. 

Following is a list of barriers to identifying gifted disadvantaged and 
culturally different students: 71 

• attitudes and expectations of educators who often do not believe 
there is giftedness in culturally different populations 

• over-reliance on intelligence tests as the prime criterion for 
identification 

• a rigid learning environment and an inflexible curriculum which fail 
to take into account the individual needs and learning styles of these 
populations 

• failure to provide the necessary general education, basic skills 
foundation and how-to-learn skills required for the further 
development of specialized talents 

• failure of schools to understand the significance of a mother tongue 
other than English, belittling language habits and speech patterns, 
and failure to provide bilingual education where needed 

• failure to create a learning environment where attention is given to 
both the affective and cognitive elements of talent development 

• failure to select, assign and provide appropriate inservice education 
to teachers, counsellors, administrators and other educators who 
must create the conditions for learning and who. by serving as the 
gatekeepers for programs and services, are critical in talent 
development 

• failure to help culturally different students enhance their self-esteem 
and recognize that systematic and long-term discrimination 
contributes to lower self-perceptions. 

To resolve the problem of identifying disadvantaged and culturally 
different students, a number of steps must be taken: 

• shift the emphasis from being gifted to developing gifted behaviours 

• adopt a more inclusive, flexible and instructionally oriented 
conception of giftedness 

• include content that is part of the ethnic cultures in designing 
learning experiences 

• use community resources, including parents, in the development of 
appropriate programs. 



GT.98 



Physical and/or Sensory Disability 

Students who have orthopedic, visual or hearing disabilities may also have 
outstanding ability in academic pursuits. Teachers must avoid a tendency 
to let the traits of the disability get in the way of recognizing the 
intellectual potential. 

Highly Gifted 

Students who are highly gifted have generally been those with IQs of 
145-159 and above. Students in this range need: 

• a profile of their unique academic and non-academic strengths and 
weaknesses 

• counselling support in dealing with frustration of being much more 
academically precocious than their peer group 

• major restructuring of the curriculum. 

Feldman (1991 ) defines a prodigy as a child who before the age of 10 
performs at the level of an adult professional in some cognitively 
demanding field. Morelock & Feldman (1997) found that for each 
child prodigy mentioned in the literature, the child had extraordinary 
natural ability and was born into a family that recognized, valued and 
fostered that ability when it was first revealed. They add that the child 
was exposed to instruction by a master teacher possessing superior 
knowledge of the domain and its history. Personal qualities of the 
child prodigy are inner-directedness and a passionate commitment to 
the field of extraordinary achievement. Morelock & Feldman caution 
that may come at the expense of social and emotional development, as 
prodigies often have friendships restricted to a small group of others 
with an interest in the same specialization. Although they may have 
exceptional abilities in one domain, they may experience frustration in 
not having equal success in other areas and are not prepared to deal 
with failure. 



Identification Through 
Learning Opportunities 

It involves the creation of 

environments that will make 

it possible for students to 

engage in rich learning 

opportunities as a means of 

displaying gifted behaviors 

and talent potential. 

Frasier & 

Passow, 1994, 

p. xvii 



Conclusion 73 

In conclusion, the following criteria may guide the identification of 
students who are gifted: 

• employ as broad a range of identification measures as practical, 
including both subjective and objective techniques 

• use multiple criteria to define giftedness (focus on diversity and the 
expression of talents in different ways, rather than purely 
homogeneous, convergently gifted students) 

• aim to include students rather than exclude them 



GT.99 



^ 



) 



J 



• avoid excluding a student from selection by a single measure alone 

• use flexible approaches to identification 

• identify needs on an ongoing basis (regular reviews of progress 
may indicate fluidity regarding which students should move in or 
out of various programming options; different students may well 
be identified as suitable for different forms of educational 
provision) 

• use measures appropriate to different stages of student 
development 

• employ specific measures sensitive to identifying students in 
potentially disadvantaged groups, such as teenage girls, culturally 
different groups and economically disadvantaged students 

• ensure early recognition and intervention for students 

• utilize the specialist skills of appropriate professionals across 
various areas of expertise. 

Remember: 

• the key aim of identification is to provide educational services for 
students 

• the provision of stimulating and enriching programs in a 
challenging school environment in which difference is accepted 
and talents are nourished, may encourage students to choose 
appropriate programming. 

What schools and school districts value in serving students who are 
gifted and talented will guide them in their definitions, identification 
procedures and instructional services. It is critical to ensure the values 
expressed in the identification program are the same as those expressed 
in the instructional program to provide both learning opportunities and 
an appropriate environment in helping these students achieve their 
potentials. 



Identification Process Resources 

There is a great need to create and implement new, flexible, diagnostic 
conceptions of identification, rather than retain a focus on in/out 
placement and selection criteria. 



GT.100 



Some models and approaches which provide services to more students 
by changing the way students are identified, and in which there is 
greater emphasis on talent development, flexibility and student needs 
follow. 

• DISCOVER: Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities 
through Observation while allowing for Varied Ethnic Responses 
(Maker, 1993, 1996). 

• Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (Gagne, 
1991,1993,1995). 

• Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983, Gardner 
& Hatch, 1989). 

• Individualized Programming Planning Model (Treffinger, 1986). 

• Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) (Van Tassel-Baska, 1994, 
1995). 

• Purdue Three-Stage Model (Feldhusen & Kolloff, 1986; Feldhusen 
& Robinson, 1986; Feldhusen, 1995). 

• Schoolwide Enrichment Model (Renzulli & Reis, 1985; Renzulli, 
1994, 1995). 

• Talent Identification and Development in Education (TIDE) 
(Feldhusen, 1992, 1994). 



GT.101 



The experiences children 

have and the interests 

developed during childhood 

appear to strongly 

influence the later 

development of their 

talents. 

Sloane, 1985, in 

Doxey & Wright, 

1990, p. 425 



SECTION 4: CHARACTERISTICS 
OF CREATIVELY GIFTED STUDENTS 
IN THE VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS 



The encouragement of parents, teachers and role models is important 
in the development of students gifted in the fine arts. Their talents 
prosper through instruction given by nurturing, knowledgeable 
teachers and professionals in the specific arts field. Identification, 
enrichment and strategies for designing curriculum modification are 
essential for the nurturing of students* special abilities. 

Students capable of high performance in the visual and performing 
arts can be identified as a subgroup of gifted and talented students. 
Students gifted in the fine arts are those who demonstrate superior 
abilities in dance, theatre, creative writing, instrumental or vocal 
music and visual arts. Supportive teachers are essential to developing 
a context in which these students feel comfortable demonstrating their 
abilities. Many of these students are highly motivated, fiercely 
committed to their art, and show a great deal of creativity and 
originality in their productions. 

Students gifted in the fine arts must be observed closely in their out- 
of-school and extra-curricular activities for effective identification. 
One way to identify students who are gifted and talented is to 
formulate student profiles based on the following wide array of data. 

• Preschool development information includes observations of 
students' early interests and talents, physical or intellectual 
precocity, and social and emotional maturity. 

• Psychometric information includes data about students' aptitude 
(musical, movement, performance or visual expressions), 
creativity, interest and performance. Sources of this type of data 
are varied and include aptitude and standardized tests, interest 
inventories, self-ratings and peer ratings. 

• Performance information includes audition, exhibition or 
performance records; audio/video or photographic records, or 
developmental portfolios. 

• Motivational information includes students* written or verbal 
expression of interest and commitment, as well as evidence 
gleaned from the previous sources. 



74 



) 



GT.102 



Guidelines for the Identification of Gifted 
Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

The South Carolina Department of Education developed Guidelines 
for the Identification of Artistically Gifted and Talented Students, 
which describes a three-step process for identifying students who are 
artistically gifted and talented. 

The following steps narrow the process for selection from a broad 
talent pool. " The steps have application in both the visual and 
performing arts. 




STEP ONE — INITIAL SCREENING 

Initial screening should be used to identify 
students who show aptitude for the fine arts. 
These are students who may benefit from 
intense exploration and in-depth study in one 
or more of the fine arts. Initial screening 
forms may be developed to solicit information 
from several sources about individual students. 
Some examples are included in the 
appendices: 

• Faculty/Administrator Nomination Form 
for Students who are Artistically Gifted 
and Talented (Appendix 24, page GT.250) 

• Student Nomination Form (What Do You 
Know about Your Classmates?) 
(Appendix 25, page GT.251) 

• Self-nomination Form for Students who are 
Artistically Gifted and Talented (Appendix 
26, page GT.252). 

In addition to these specific screening forms, 
teachers may wish to generate forms to 
gather input from parents. 

STEP TWO — SPECIFIC SCREENING 

Specific screening is the process of selecting 
students who are potentially gifted and talented who need expanded, 
intense and individual challenges and experiences. Approaches to 
screening might include: 

• checklists: created by teachers or commercially available and 
identified by teachers as appropriate — base responses to the 
checklist on student behaviours observed throughout the school 
year 



GT.103 



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• auditions: conducted by those with expertise in 
the artistic area — useful in establishing a talent 
pool of students with high potential in one or more 
of the arts. 

STEP THREE — FINAL SCREENING 

Final screening includes: 

• final audition: further screening for identification 
of those deemed to be top performers 

• interview: a follow-up step to determine 
individual interest and motivation (Appendix 27, 
page GT.253). 



i: totfCfWmnLtctCmT^y&nwtnMmmmimVmtHtmPwKmm***!* 



Visual Arts Audition Rating Sheet*" 

Final Screening 

Grades 1-6 



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OT.234: 



Appendix 28 (page GT.254) provides an example of 
a checklist relevant to the visual arts. 



J 



Visually Gifted 

Students who express themselves visually must have support systems 
that provide nurturing, guidance and instruction to help them realize 
their abilities and interests. It is important that students who are 
exceptionally adept in expressing themselves visually reach their 
creative potential and are recognized for it. 



GT.104 



Determining Visual Giftedness 

There are a number of characteristics that teachers should be aware of 
when defining and identifying students who are artistically gifted. 



• 



• 



Culture and background — Students from different cultures may 
not place the same importance on visual expression, may not 
exhibit their ability or may be self-conscious about it. 

Personalities and values — Students who are economically 
disadvantaged may consider artistic expression frivolous and a 
waste of time. Parents and peers as well as the students themselves 
can influence the time spent on artistic expression. 

Gifted and artistically gifted — Students who are gifted in 
academic areas often, but not always, show a high correlation of 
giftedness in visual arts. Some students who are artistically gifted 
do not score high in academic intelligences. 

• Age — Although arguments are raised that age is a factor in 
identifying artistic giftedness, it is difficult to identify students who 
are visually gifted before the age of five. A visually rich 
environment, physical development, co-ordination of the child, 
previous experience with art materials and parental encouragement 
assist in early development of artistic abilities. 

For the most part, artistically talented students exhibit special abilities 
and skills like drawing and construction that are well in advance of 
their peers. These traits include attention to detail and elaboration, 
proportion, originality and expressive qualities. They tend to stay on 
task longer and be more self-motivated, partly because they derive 
more pleasure from their work and partly because they see greater 
possibilities in the problem or assignment (Hurwitz, 1983). 

Selection and Identification Practices 

Programs that identify students who are visually gifted should include 
a variety of selection procedures: 

• nominations based on students' interests and desires 

• peer nominations; students who are shy or who undervalue their 
work can benefit from peer nominations 

• portfolio of work which can be viewed by a knowledgeable 
evaluator — criteria can be predetermined so as to be fair and 
consistent with submission and assessment 

• interview specific to the program with interview checklists 
structured by program designers 



GT.105 



"\ • observation by teachers. Teachers must be aware of age/grade 

categories and appropriate identification measures through 
observation of the artistic process, behaviour and product. Refer to 
the Art Elementary Curriculum Guide (Alberta Education. 1985), 
pages 39^3, for stages of children's visual art development in 
order to identify students who are exceptional. 

Understanding child development is critical to the implementation of 
an art curriculum and development of strategies for students who are 
visually gifted. "It is important for teachers to keep in mind that each 
child is unique and so is every classroom of children. Each child is 
unique because he or she grows at his or her own rate in all areas of 
development: physical, cognitive, emotional, social and spiritual. 
Every child goes through the same stages of development but at 
different rates and at different times'* (Alberta Education. 1985). 
Students who are visually gifted will demonstrate drawing, painting, 
modelling and other visual art abilities beyond their age, grade or peer 
group. 

Classroom Strategies to Encourage Visual 
Arts Development 

v The following strategies encourage development in the visual arts. 

• Have a wide variety of materials, media and tools available for 
drawing, painting and printmaking. including crayons, pastels, 
chalk, inks, brushes and surfaces/papers. 

• Have a wide variety of construction and modelling materials and 
tools to carve, construct, glue and nail as well as opportunities to 
cut, tear and paste; e.g., wallpaper paste, hammer and nails, 
staples, tape. etc. 

• Develop a rich visual and tactile environment filled with natural 
and man-made objects. 

• Bring in guest models, animals, animal skeletons, antiques, 
machine parts; dress up students as models: project an image or 
spot light on models. 

• Organize a gallery visit; investigate the arts of various cultures; 
bring in a guest artist. 

• Encourage discussion of art works with an understanding of the 
design principles of balance, movement, rhythm, emphasis, 
variety, unity, contrast, pattern, centre of interest. Describe, 
analyze and interpret works for meaning, and judge the value of 
the visual statement (Naested, 1998). 



GT.106 



• 



• 



Exhibit all student work and avoid competitions. ''Competitions 
promote unrealistic expectations of children" (Alberta Education, 
1985). 

Avoid stereotyped activities that require step-by-step directions 
where the result is 25-30 identical products. "This kind of busy 
work does not allow the child his or her own expression and thus 
defeats the purpose of having children make art in school" (Alberta 
Education, 1985). 

Visually gifted students possess high standards and goals, are 
self-critical and have a dislike for rigid time schedules. "They 
learn best if they have time to discover, explore and experiment, 
and if they can work on challenging projects and solve problems of 
an open-ended nature. These students should be given a variety of 
choices that encourage decision making and be challenged to work 
with ideas as well as materials" (Naested, 1998). 

Use various methods to enrich students' experiences through 
interdisciplinary instruction, integrated curriculum built around big 
topics or themes, independent study, mentorship and internship. 



Musically Gifted 

Early music experiences as well as the inheritance of musical 
potential influences musical aptitude or the potential for musical 
achievement. Early exposure to music may well be the most 
important determining factor of the extent to which students will be 
able to create musically when they are older (Gordon, 1989). 
Students' social and physical environments play major roles in 
helping determine musical success. These include: 

• parental interest in music 

• exposure (available instruments, singing, tapes, records, 
participation in other musical activities) 

• the belief that music is important 

• the student's internal motivation (Doxey & Wright, 1990). 

Early identification is of utmost importance for developing gifts and 
talents in young children. "Given that infants and young children 'do' 
music spontaneously, the failure to encourage that behaviour (as 
opposed to the enormous amount of reinforcement given to speaking) 
not only misses a great opportunity but promotes withering of 
children's interest in going beyond their own raw level. Thus, when 
some children later take up music instruction, teachers are already 
working with remediation" (Weinberger, 1998). 



GT.107 



") 



There are many teachers who can train young children to be 
technically competent on an instrument. However, young, talented 
musicians also need to experience the warmth and feeling of music to 
receive an adequate music education. Care must be taken not to 
overload children so that music remains a joy. Some music programs, 
such as the Suzuki and Kodaly methods are specifically suited to 
young children. 



The following are possible indicators of musical giftedness in young 
children: 6 

perfect or absolute pitch 

ability to correctly reproduce melodies 

interest in musical instruments 

well-developed sense of rhythm 

ability to harmonize without training or with training at an early age 

fascination with the masters of music 

ability to play an instrument by ear 

ability to play an instrument without formal instruction 

composition of songs 

ability to identify musical instruments by sound 

deep, passionate love of music 

ability to read music without training 

fascination with, or gravitation toward music 

emotional involvement with music 

extreme sensitivity to music 

commitment to practise 

desire to perfect performance. 



J 



Determining Musical Giftedness 

Beyond naturally developed talent, the most important aspect for 
continued development of musical talent is students" motivation and 
interest. 

Music is a language to learn, however, learning to play an instrument 
or to sing does not constitute talent or achievement. Students' 
individual characteristics are also required for the development of 
musical ability. These include high levels of cognitive ability, visual 
and auditory perception "because the processing of music requires 
perceptual and intellectual functioning" (Shuter-Dyson, 1985). 
Musical aptitude is multidimensional, including tone, rhythm, 
creativity and improvisational aptitude (Gordon, 1 989). 

There are three different skill areas to consider in determining musical 
giftedness. To identify these skill areas, three procedures are 
suggested. 77 



GT.108 



Skill Area 


Identification Procedure 


performance skills 


audition 


creative ability, such as 


analysis of student composition 


composition 




verbal and musical-perceptual 


evaluation of examples of 


skills 


student writing 



Classroom Strategies to Encourage Music 
Development 

There are many strategies which teachers can use to encourage music 
development. 

• Encourage students to take on not only the role of composer and 
performer, but also listener, evaluator, consumer and historian 
through involvement and research. 

• Nurture students' abilities to respond effectively to the sounds, 
melodies and rhythms generated by playing, active listening and 
discussing a variety of music selections. 

• Select many different varieties of musical compositions and styles 
to encourage students to appreciate music and use their 
imaginations to see musical imagery. 

• Introduce classical composers and musical concepts. 

• Encourage the use of instruments for students to create rhythmic 
patterns. 

• Give students opportunities to construct their own musical 
instruments. 

• Facilitate students' sense of tempo by using simple percussion 
instruments that provide beats or a grouping of beats. 

• Bring various musical instruments into the classroom. 

• Invite guest musicians to discuss their instruments and work. 

• Set up interest, theme or listening centres based on time period, 
style or culture. 

• Teach songs based on specific themes; e.g., seasons, weather, 
counting, etc. 

• Talk with students about the vocabulary of music — use accurate 
vocabulary unobtrusively as a means of describing what your 
students are learning and/or experiencing. 



GT.109 



• 



• 



Use the computer to teach fundamental music skills. The 
effectiveness of the instruction is contingent upon available 
hardware and/or software. Many computer programs are fairly 
sophisticated and may only be useful for secondary students. 

Use electro-acoustic music programs to enable music students to 
create, alter and manipulate sound. 

Videotape or audiotape students during the process of learning to 
sing a song, play a musical instrument or during a performance to 
provide valuable additions to their learning portfolios and allow for 
reflection on their development. 

• Play music in the classroom — often! 

Formal Study 

Formal study of music is important for the development of musical 
abilities. "The formal study of music enables young people to 
understand and appreciate more varied, more sophisticated and more 
complex music. It sharpens their perception, raises their level of 
appreciation and expands their musical horizons'* (Lehman, 1993). 

As students get older, peer pressure may discourage efforts in music. 
School groups, such as band and choir may help alleviate negative 
peer pressure and become a positive influence that encourages 
involvement. Arranging experiences for students to perform music 
with others of similar ability is generally a positive and enjoyable 
experience (Marek-Schroer & Schroer, 1993). 

Further readings which may include inventories and tests for students 
who are musically gifted follow. 

• Seashore, Carl E. (1919). Seashore Measures of Musical Talent is 
a battery of listening tests, commonly known today as the 
"Seashore Test." 

• Karnes. Merle B. (1978). "Music Checklist" — ERIC Document 
No. ED 160 226, p. 21. 

• Gordon, E. E. (1979). Primary Measures of Music Audiation. 
Chicago, IL: G.I.A. Publications. 

• Shuter-Dyson, R. & Gabriel. C. ( 1 98 1 ). The Psychology of 
Musical A bility (second edition). London, England: Methuen. 

• Dorhout, A. (1982). "Identifying musically gifted children." 
Journal for the Education of the Gifted, Volume 5. pp. 56-66. 

• Gordon, E. E. (1982). Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation. 
Chicago, IL: G.I.A. Publications. 



GT.110 



Elam, A., Goodwin, M. & Moore, A (1985). Guidelines for the 
Identification of Artistically Gifted and Talented Students. 
Columbia, SC: South Carolina State Department of Education. 
(See pages GT. 250-251 for two nomination forms from these 
guidelines.) 

Wang, C. ( 1 985). Measures of Creativity in Sound and Music. 
Unpublished manuscript. Available from Cecilia Wang, School of 
Music, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506. 

Boyle, J. D. & Radpcy, R. E. (1987). Measurement and 
Evaluation of Musical Experiences. New York, NY: Schirmer. 

Winter, G. (1987). Identifying Children in Grades 1-3 who are 
Gifted and Talented in Visual and Performing Arts using 
Performance Rated Criterion. ERIC Document No. ED 289 330. 

Webster, P. R. (1989). Measures of Creative Thinking in Music: 
Administrative Guidelines. Unpublished manuscript. Available 
from Peter R. Webster, School of Music, Northwestern University, 
Evanston, IL, 60201. 

Baum, S. M., Owen, S. V. & Oreck, B. A. (1996). "Talent beyond 
words: identification of potential talent in dance and music in 
elementary students." Gifted Child Quarterly, 40(2), 
pp. 93-101. 

Calgary Board of Education & Calgary Catholic School Division 
(1998). Learning, Teaching and Assessment in Fine Arts. A joint 
project for elementary and secondary teachers, Calgary. 



GlFTEDNESS IN DRAMA 

Giftedness in drama encompasses a variety of intelligences. 
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences published in 1984 contends 
that there are at least seven types of intelligences. Although each 
intelligence can be used for artistic creation, no one intelligence is 
inherently artistic. A person with a high degree of linguistic 
intelligence might become a poet, novelist or dramatist, or instead a 
lawyer or journalist. A person with kinesthetic intelligence could 
become a dancer or athlete. For the purpose of identifying students 
gifted in drama, most teachers agree that there is no one specific test 
that is sufficient for identification purposes. Interviews, auditions and 
tasks specific to the Alberta curriculum should be used to supplement 
tests and inventories. There is, however, some agreement that the 
ability to get along with others is an important aspect, as drama is not 
a separate art form. For younger children, observations by parents, 
teachers and peers can be effective. 



GT.lll 



Observations should include: 
interest and motivation 
elaboration of thought 
ability to fantasize and imagine 
ability to communicate 
excellent memory 
sense of humour 
flexibility of thought 
attraction to aesthetic values 
uninhibited intellect 

presence (appearing right, confident and theatrical in front of 
others) 
ensemble (everyone is important in the creative process). 



Inventories and Tests 

Inventories and tests are useful in identifying students who are gifted. 
In many cases, the type or combinations of types of inventories used 
are specific to the curriculum and to the task at hand. In some cases, 
inventories will apply for future potential, and in other cases, for 
immediate recognition. Teachers should use the test or inventory best 
suited to their own situations. They include: 

• checklists 

• interviews 

• creativity tests; e.g., the Creativity Assessment Packet (CAP) 

• auditions 

• screening tasks 

• role playing 

• communications tests (speech) 

• tests involving movement 

• choral speech 

• story telling 

• confidence (extrovertism, risk taking). 



GT.112 



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OT.253 



Classroom Strategies to Encourage Development 
in Drama 

Enrichment opportunities may take many forms. 

• Accelerated programs enhance the drama disciplines of movement, 
speech, improvisation acting, theatre studies and technical theatre. 

• Peer tutoring — students who are more advanced can assist in the 
teaching of others. This is enrichment for both learner and teacher. 
It is important to note that students who are gifted who tutor 
less-able students should experience further enrichment from this 
experience or it becomes ineffective. 

• Professional theatre groups in co-operation with school drama 
departments offer teen classes all year. 



GT.113 



• 



Students should be encouraged to attend matinee performances at 
local professional theatres and read as much criticism of these as 
possible. 

Invite professionals to discuss and critique student productions. 

Encourage students to critique professional productions. 

Audition for all productions available, such as school productions, 
community productions and amateur theatre. 

Study varied theatre genres, as well as social studies and literature. 

Investigate locally developed courses, such as Advanced 
Acting/Touring Theatre 15, 25, 35. 

• Hire or recruit professionals to provide workshops on specific 
aspects for program enrichment. 

• Encourage professional development of teachers through academic 
courses, involvement in productions and workshops with 
professionals, and specialist councils; e.g., Fine Arts Council. 

• Mentoring programs place promising students directly in touch 
with professional actors, playwrights, etc. 

• Offer creative drama where students interpret events, stories or 
statements in their own actions and dialogue. Creative drama is 
not meant to be performed in front of an audience but rather to 
enhance artistic expression through artistic intellect and socially 
shared experiences. Creative drama encompasses: 

- imagination and creativity — students dress up and pretend to be 
someone else 

- pantomime — silent body language is used to convey what 
would have been conveyed with words 

- improvision — creative drama with sounds and expressive 
language 

- children's theatre — live play on stage. 

A number of ways to evaluate strategies follows. 

• Student evaluation — create a log book for observation and 
reflection of students* work as well as that of their peers. Organize 
it with section headings which represent activity, objective and 
reaction. 

• Teacher evaluation — teachers can create marking guides specific 
to tasks, often with student input. Some forms of presentation for 
assessment could be: interviews, portfolios, photographs, 
narratives, descriptions, skill demonstrations, stage models, 
reviews/critiques, performances, seminars and discussions. 



GT.114 



• Group evaluation — offer constructive criticism, avoiding attack. 

• Festivals allow students to validate and affirm their skills in front 
of audiences of peers, professionals and the general public. 

• Encourage parent feedback as participants in the whole production 
from acting to set design. 

• Solicit feedback from friends and family on final projects. 

• Create checklists with expectations and rating scales to mark 
specific abilities (curriculum based). 

• Personal journal — encourage uncensored reflection on what has 
been learned. 



Talent in the Psychomotor/Kinesthetic Domain 

The student who is gifted in the psychomotor/kinesthetic domain can 
rapidly process the three phases of skill development (cognitive, 
associative, autonomous) beyond what is considered normal in the 
various stages of growth and development. Many factors can affect 
the speed at which skill development occurs and performance 
outcomes are attained, therefore it is important to recognize that 
athletes who are gifted can demonstrate a broad range of 
characteristics, including those previously described in the intellectual 
and affective dimensions, pages GT.38-44. 

Characteristics of the Athlete who is Gifted 

Athletes who are gifted exhibit the following characteristics. 

• They want to demonstrate/perform. They should be viewed as 
practitioners of co-ordinated movements whose focus is on the 
sensory, spatial and mechanical aspects of movement. 



• 



They are recognized for their ability to acquire skill mastery and 
can synthesize, transfer and differentiate learned movements across 
the continuum of physical activity and sport. 

They tend to exhibit dominating behaviour, especially at younger 
ages. The desire to take over a game or activity can be a result of 
the need to compete. 

They tend to retain their skills under competitive pressure (where 
others will see their skill levels break down), while harnessing 
their emotional and analytical abilities to create or repeat the 
desired outcomes. 



GT.115 



• They display a heightened sense of anticipation when dealing with 
outcomes. Through situational recall, they possess insights which 
enhance performance. 

• They look forward to culminating activities or events that reinforce 
the mastery of systematically developed skills (the nurturing of a 
festive atmosphere surrounding the event serves to enhance these 
experiences). 

• They demonstrate a high degree of self-efficacy and self-judgment 
of how well they can perform an action. Although all athletes are 
limited by their ability plateau, athletes who are gifted believe in 
their talents going into a performance and tend to do well as a result. 

Instructional Implications 

Many athletes who are gifted have had opportunities outside of the 
classroom, in either structured or informal settings, where they can 
pursue their specific interests. Teachers need to decide how best to 
serve athletes who may have one or more areas of special interest 
within a curriculum that embraces a broad spectrum of activities. 
Some long-range and daily strategies follow. 

• Use the strategies/tools found within this handbook, including 
lesson adaptation, learning contracts, independent study and 
problem solving within curriculum/activities to modify lessons for 
athletes who are gifted. Program goals reflect the individual nature 
of this type of programming and focus on the learner's depth of 
understanding as well as achievement of skill mastery. 

Use homogeneous (ability) groupings for all physical education 
classes if possible (Goodwin, 1997). 



• 



• 



Use self-differentiated tasking and modified competition sequences 
at the primary level to meet the needs of the under- or over- 
challenged. Use open-ended questioning techniques (How many 
can you . . .? How far can you . . .? How fast can you . . .?) to 
enable students to challenge themselves to their own limits. 
Consider uneven sides; e.g., 3-5 over-challenged vs. 1-2 under- 
challenged, in a competitive sequence while teaching game skills 
(Rowe, 1995). 

Consider implementing sport education programs. This type of 
program can provide a positive learning environment for all 
students in physical education, especially in the area of teaching 
sport in physical education. The essential features are: 
- skills are taught within the context of a game, rather than in 

isolation and students are expected to develop appropriate levels 

of skill 



GT.116 



- within a game unit, students take varying roles, including player, 
coach, referee, scorer and statistician 

- players are members of teams who participate in formal 
competition which is interspersed with teacher- and student- 
directed practice sessions (Hastie, 1996). 

The model caters to the needs of the athlete who is gifted who does 
not require prolonged periods of drill to master a skill. 

• Try play-teach-play: 

- participate in the complete sequence 

- teach a specific technique 

- resume activity. 

This reinforces skill development within the context of the activity 
for upper grade levels. For the athlete who is gifted in the older 
age bracket, who is keen to perform, this teaching model reinforces 
the connection between skill development and performance 
outcomes in game situations. The "whys" and "hows" of 
becoming more competent are explained in context, bringing 
together theory and practice in a combined intellectual/physical 
experience (Graham, 1992). 

• Use the athlete who is gifted as teacher/leader. Although not all 
athletes who are gifted covet this role, many find themselves cast 
as a leader or mentor with the subsequent social responsibilities 
that accompany such a role. Modification to the curriculum should 
be in place to assure that all parties involved view this in a positive 
manner. 

Dance Movement 

Children do not start learning to dance by practising certain steps as 
adults do. Children start by moving (dancing) and fill in the technical 
details as they progress with instruction. 

The common element found in all forms of dance is the rhythmical 
movement of the body for aesthetic purposes, but how this is achieved 
varies. When viewing dance forms (ballet, jazz, tap, folk, modern, 
creative) on a continuum, creative dance is placed at one end with 
ballet at the opposite end. Ballet is one of the most structured forms 
of dance. 

Talent in dance comprises many related sub-skills: 

• physical abilities 

• co-ordination and agility 

• motivation 

• task commitment 

• expressiveness and improvisational skill. 

GT.117 



Students progress as they master body control, accept their bodies, 
co-operate with others and, finally, perform (Downey, 1995). 

A student's ability is evident in the process as well as the product. 
The teacher evaluates the student's ability to respond, notice, 
concentrate, be curious, take risks and imitate. Teachers can look for 
evidence of dance ability under several categories including: space, 
time, performance and communication, composition and body 
management. 

• Space — the forming or control of space includes shape and 
shaping, place and placing, mass, tension and progression. Is the 
dancer confident or timid? Are the movements open or close to the 
body? 

• Time — includes duration, sequence, speed, rhythm and phrase. 
Are the beginning and end distinct? Is there continuity in 
movement? 



• 



• 



Performance and Communication — includes space/time, force, 
projection and the flow of energy. Is the performance controlled, 
energetic, clear, confident, polished? Does the work come across 
with conviction and meaning through body and facial expression? 
Is the composition of the dance coherent, well-structured and 
interesting? 

Composition and Body Management — includes skills and 
techniques, strength and flexibility, fitness, alignment, accuracy in 
observation and performance. The high-ability dancer controls 
body weight, and is accurate and fluent in the performance of 
complex sequences. Footwork is precise and alignment accurate, 
elevation and off/on balance appear effortless. The ability to see 
what is evident in each student's work and behaviour is developed 
through experienced observation and by sharing observations. 7 A 
professional dance instructor who has an understanding of 
developmental stages can assist in the evaluation and assessment 
of students* potential giftedness in dance/movement. This 
assessment can take place during a learning and teaching 
experience, which may include problems for students to solve, the 
learning of a new technique or viewing a personal interpretation of 
music/movement. 



GT.118 



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Classroom Strategies to Encourage Dance Development 

Teachers can use the following strategies to encourage kinesthetic 
development with all students. 

• Provide dance experiences with short-term resolutions for children 
aged five through eight who have short attention spans. 

• Challenge students to explore large, full-body movement and 
identify body parts through smaller movements. 

• Explore personal space to encourage students to become familiar 
with the use of their total range of movement around the axis of 
their bodies. This helps define their personal space. Have students 
pretend they are moving in a very large bubble. 

Have students experience movement spaces that 
they normally do not use . . . reach and stretch to 
all points of their axis, shrink and expand, high, 
medium, low, front, sides, diagonals, back. 
Students need to develop a large repertoire of 
nonverbal behaviour and expressive responses in 
order to communicate their ideas convincingly 
(Herman & Kirschenbaum. 1990). See Appendix 
33, page GT.259 for dance concepts and the 
details of each concept. 

Encourage students to develop short sequences of 
one, two or three movements. 

Guide movement explorations, game structures 
and group improvisations that are important 
aspects of the dance experience. 

Have students animate storytelling or develop 
their own dances to stories or folk tales. 

Make a shape with the body, name the shape and then collapse out 
of it; the student has just learned a major dance concept — stillness 
and movement. 

Set up interest or theme centres based on time period, style or 
cultural dance. Provide students with actual information on folk 
dances of various cultures. 

Give students many and various opportunities to develop their own 
movement/dance, solo or in groups. 

Encourage students to take on not only the role of composer and 
performer, but also listener, evaluator, consumer and historian 
through involvement and research. 

Invite guest musicians to discuss their instruments and their work. 



GT.119 



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• Design activities that focus a whole movement 
session on two contrasting qualities; e.g., sharp 
and smooth, or on two contrasting uses of space; 
e.g., big and small. By helping students 
experience feelings and the different movements 
they evoke, the teacher will enrich the movement 
sessions for them. Follow the experiences with 
questions, such as: How does it make you feel? 
Have you seen . . .? What does it make you think 
of . . .? These questions help students to discover 
the expressive potential of movement. See 
Appendix 34, page GT.260 for more on basic 
movement concepts. 

• Provide opportunities for students to use their 
bodies as a medium of expression. Encourage 
them to dramatize or role play stories or different 
outcomes to traditional folk tales (Edwards, 1997). 



) 



• Talk with students about the vocabulary of 
movement and music. Use accurate vocabulary unobtrusively as a 
means of describing what students are experiencing. 

• Facilitate students' sense of tempo by simple percussion 
accompaniment that provides beats or a grouping of beats. 

• Allow students to respond in ways that they can control their 
bodies and broaden the scope of their rhythmic expression. 

• Provide students with lightweight colourful scarves, streamers, 
hoops, bean bags, balls, ribbons, parachutes. Scarves and 
streamers flow and move through space, and can be transformed 
into capes, wings, umbrellas, and define space on the floor. 

• Videotape students through the process of developing or learning a 
dance or during a performance. 

Assessment Tools for Dance/Movement 79 

Assessment tools may take a variety of forms. When observing the 
process of acquiring dance skills and the product of the acquisition 
("skills" is used in the broadest sense to include skills in all areas of 
learning), assessment should include many of the following: 

• anecdotal comments 

• portfolios 

• conferences 

• journals, logs, notebooks 

• reports 



GT.120 





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• checklists (created by a teacher and/or outside 
agency — see Appendix 35, pages GT. 261-262) 

• questionnaires (for teacher, student and parents) 

• videotapes 

• critiques (by student, teacher, peers and possibly a 
trained observer) 

• tests (teacher/student created and standardized) 

• performance critique (amateur or professional) 

• peer teaching/coaching. 

When a variety of assessment tools is used and 
information is gathered to create an assessment 
portfolio, all those involved form a clear idea of a 
student's understanding. 



Curriculum Modification — Differentiated 
Classroom Strategies for Fine Arts 

The following strategies have broad application across all the visual 
and performing arts. 

Independent Study 

Independent study allows students to work at their own pace. 
Students who are gifted learn more quickly and more independently, 
and can concentrate for longer periods of time than students of 
average ability. They are generally motivated to learn intrinsically 
and tackle tasks in an organized goal-oriented manner. They prefer to 
explore and do things on their own. Section 5 provides further 
information regarding independent study (pages GT. 148-1 57) 
including guidelines for teacher intervention, developing an 
independent study plan and further suggestions for success, including 
learning contracts. 



Peer Collaboration 

Peer collaboration and co-operative learning groups (formal, informal, 
brainstorming or response groups) can be used as a motivational 
strategy. There are many benefits to forming students into groups for 
discussion or research: 

• to provide an immediate forum to talk through ideas 

• to encourage peer support for learning 

• to help each other learn through consultation 



GT.121 



• to gain a diversity of perspectives or insights 

• to provide the class forum for discussion 

• to encourage reilection 

• to understand relevance of information and ideas 

• to learn through purposeful talk. 

Questioning Techniques 

The primary purpose of questioning is to promote thinking. Poor 
questioning techniques can inhibit creative problem solving and risk 
taking (Naested, 1998). Section 5 discusses several techniques for 
questioning (including Bloom's Taxonomy), ways to encourage 
creative thinking through brainstorming, the SCAMPER technique 
and a six-step creative problem-solving model. 

Bloom's Taxonomy could be used to generate questions about a 
particular piece of music. 



Knowledge 


Who composed the words to the song Wind 
Beneath My Wings'? 


Comprehension 


How would you explain the metaphor of the title? 


Application 


Design a CD cover that illustrates the song. 


Analysis 


How is the theme of this song different 
from/similar to the theme of Send in the Clowns? 


Synthesis 


Keeping the same theme, rhythm and mood, add a 
new verse to the song. 


Evaluation 


Tell why Wind Beneath My Wings would/would 
not be an appropriate song to sing at a high school 
graduation ceremony. 



Learning Centres 81 

Learning centres are sometimes also called activity, theme or interest 
centres. Use these centres to encourage independent learning or 
individualized instruction related to a specific theme or topic. One 
example of a centre which might be set up in a drama room would 
focus on the topic "Characterization in Plot Development.'* Title the 
centre, "Hat Terrific!" Place on display a variety of hats; e.g.. 
sombrero, tarn, pillbox, ball cap, toque, military headgear, etc. 
Design task cards that invite students to choose one hat. put it on and 
do one of the sample activities listed on the next page. 






GT.122 



• 



• 



Mime a brief episode of a scene where that particular hat might be 
worn. 

Write a script for a scene where the main character would wear the 
chosen hat. 

Describe the personality who would choose to wear a particular 
hat. 



Students should be taught how the centre operates: the centre's 
learning objective, directions for use, and resource materials for 
research, investigation and project assignment. 

Daily Log/Journal 

Records of thoughts, ideas, preliminary drawings, observations, 
collectibles, poems, musical scores and research on artists are 
valuable resources for student reflection and growth. Student journals 
can also give teachers an understanding of students' work habits and 
thought processes, and can become a tool for identification of 
giftedness in the fine arts. 

Use of Computers 

Advancements in computer technology have greatly influenced artists, 
both visual and performing, and many students come to school with a 
high level of computer literacy. Students should be encouraged to take 
advantage of skill development opportunities, creative problem solving, 
and manipulation of images and sound through new technologies. 

Computers can be used to generate images, view visual images, assist 
learning and demonstrate learning through multi-media presentations. 
However, it must be stressed that the computer is merely a new tool 
compelled to obey the will of the artist. Students should be 
discouraged from using pre-drawn clip art images. Whenever 
possible, use drawing and painting programs and/or have students 
scan their personally created images onto the hard drive or disc for 
placement and manipulation. 

Computer music instruction has become popular. Most music 
programs teach fundamental music skills. The effectiveness of 
instruction is related to available hardware (Taylor, 1988). Students 
can learn to sing, listen and gain a range of other music fluency skills. 
The music literacy skills involved in reading, comprehending and 
notating music are also attainable (Thomas, 1990). Electro-acoustic 
music programs enable students to create, alter and manipulate sound. 
Some computer music programs may be too sophisticated for young 
learners and may be best introduced at the secondary level. 



GT.123 



^ Opportunities for Enrichment in the Fine Arts 

Schools and community organizations can provide curricular 
enhancing activities to foster the development of artistic talent. A 
variety follow. 

Private Lessons and Tutors 

To additionally enrich their regular school programs, some students 
are able to access private instruction. Trained teachers in the fine and 
performing arts disciplines can greatly assist in the skill development 
and talents of students gifted in the fine arts. These include instruction 
in instrumental music, vocal music, speech, dance, theatre and visual 
arts. They supplement in areas that may not be feasible in the 
classroom, due to teacher expertise, time, facilities or equipment; e.g.. 
airbrush painting, oil painting, printmaking. specific musical 
instrument instruction. 

Artist-in-Residence 

The placement of artists in schools to teach, create and perform over a 
period of time (several days or weeks) is often referred to as an 
artist-in-residence. Students have opportunities to experience first 
hand the artistic process and work alongside a practising artist. 
Students receive special insights into the creative process as well as 
specialized training. Artists can help students identify and understand 
the psychological and sociological implications of being an artist. 

Artist-in-residence programs work best in a concentrated time frame, 
or over a long period of time (days/weeks), with a small group of 
students who have an expressed interest in the art form. 

Mentorship Programs 

Through mentorship programs, students are provided with adult 
mentors who have special talents. Rather than a teacher-student 
relationship, mentors provide their proteges with close personal and 
professional relationships. Mentors become guides, role models, 
counsellors, teachers and friends. Educators must give careful thought 
when planning a mentorship relationship including preparing the 
student for the partnership. Students should know their topic, be able to 
work independently (self-motivated learner), have a desire for this 
opportunity, a passion or some expertise in the discipline and a 
commitment that is long-term. A close and exciting relationship 
between the adult and student can develop as they interact and engage 
in artistic experiences. Students derive numerous benefits through 
J mentorship programs, especially in career development. See Section 5, 

pages GT.179-GT.183 for more on mentorship. 

GT.124 



Advanced Placement 

Advanced placement is designed to enable high school students to 
earn college credits while still in high school. Advanced placement in 
the fine arts is primarily for visual arts students. Students complete 
portfolios of work that is scored by experts. Work in drawing, design 
and art history are juried. The advanced placement program provides 
the necessary rigour that students who are artistically gifted require. 
Self-motivation, task commitment and love of learning are essential 
ingredients for success. See Section 5, pages GT. 1 86-1 87, for more 
on advanced placement. 

Acceleration for students gifted in the fine arts can be offered at any 
school which has fine arts personnel and programs flexible enough to 
meet the needs of their students who are gifted in the fine arts. For 
example, a Grade 7 student who is musically gifted is given the 
opportunity to study, practise and perform with Grade 9 band 
students. 



Galleries and Museums 

Schools can enrich students' fine arts experiences through trips to 
museums and in-school and out-of-school performances. Galleries, 
museums, conservatories and festivals (music, special arts events, 
visual arts) offer tours and often short units of study in the history and 
appreciation of the art form. In preparation for field trips, teachers 
should discuss concepts and ideas which will be introduced or 
experienced during the outing. Back in the classroom, teachers 
should debrief the experience, or continue to expand or connect the 
investigation with the course curricula. 

Community Art Centres 

Many communities offer programs for students during weekends and 
evenings at local community or leisure centres. In the visual arts, 
many of these programs are craft oriented, however artists with 
technique specialties are often available. Students who want to 
experience a high degree of craftsmanship and focus on specialty 
areas can enrich their talents and abilities. 

Arts Camps 

Private enterprises, artists, arts groups and arts businesses often offer 
camps for students with interest in a fine arts discipline. These 
include such areas as instrumental music, choral music, theatre, voice, 
dance and specific visual art media — painting, ceramics, etc. 



GT.125 



Summer Programs and Saturday Schools 

Institutions of higher learning often provide excellent instruction in 
summer or Saturday programs. Instructors are carefully selected and 
are specialists in their areas. Students enrolled in these programs 
usually receive superior enrichment. They include conservatories for 
instrumental music, voice, theatre, readers' theatre, dance (specific 
areas, such as ballet, tap, jazz, folk, modern, creative) and specific 
media instruction in visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, etc). 

Magnet Fine Arts School 

Magnet schools or school-within-a-school variations meet the needs 
of the artistically gifted at both the elementary and secondary levels. 
Instructional delivery and administrative designs vary widely. The 
increase in specialized art schools is an expression of the belief that 
artistically superior students should be offered unique programs with 
greater depth and time commitment than can be found in most school 
programs. Artistically talented students become more aware, through 
participation in such programs, that there are other talented students 
like themselves. They benefit by sharing their common needs and 
interests. The programs bring students into contact with faculty who 
have specialized art skills, working artists, and other professionals in 
the arts. ~ Around the province there are several examples of fine arts 
magnet schools. Contact local jurisdiction central offices for more 
specific information. 

Arts Propel & Project zero (Howard Gardner, 
Harvard University) 

Since its inception 20 years ago. Project Zero has been concerned 
with all phases of how humans develop artistic talent or intelligences 
(spatial, kinesthetic, musical). ARTS PROPEL, 'Project Zero' 
resources offer teachers practical education applications. These can 
be ordered over the Internet [http://www.projectzero. harvard.edu]. 



GT.126 



■*! 



SECTION 5: STRATEGIES FOR DESIGNING 
AND IMPLEMENTING INSTRUCTION 



These learning experiences 

are pan) of a differentiated 

curriculum designed for 

gifted students. They are 

differentiated because they 

are considered to be an 

appropriate match between 

the recognized needs. 

abilities and interests of 

gifted students and the 

educational purposes and 

expectation held for these 

learners. 



Kaplan, 1986, 
p. 182 



This section explores specific strategies that teachers can use to 
facilitate learning experiences for students who are gifted and talented. 

The key to addressing diverse needs in any classroom rests in the 
planning of differentiated activities. The question becomes, "I low can 
the regular classroom experience be as successful as possible for gifted 
students?*" (David Harvey, Assessment Specialist, Alberta Learning). 

Teachers must have: 

• a clear conception of giftedness 

• an understanding of the unique individual needs of each student who 
is gifted 

• a familiarity with the prescriptive curriculum 

• a framework or model (or combination of theoretical models) to give 
direction and coherence to instructional planning that encompasses 
both enrichment and acceleration 

• adequate resources to support programming choices. 

The recognition and identification of the unique characteristics 
possessed by students who are gifted and talented have implications for 
learning activities. The following is a list of learning requirements: 

• provision of a large body of information on diverse topics 

• maximum exposure to basic skills and concepts 

• provision of learning activities at appropriate level and pace 

• stimulation and access to reading material 

• development of convergent abilities, especially logical deduction 

• stimulation of imagination, imagery and spatial abilities 

• experience in problem solving and creative thinking 

• development of self-awareness and acceptance of own capacities, 
interests and needs 

• stimulation to pursue advanced goals and aspirations 

• development of independence, self-direction and discipline in learning 

• experiences relating intellectually and effectively with like peers 

• exposure to a variety of professions, endeavours and occupations. 



GT.127 



The following table summarizes some core learning requirements of 
most students who are gifted and talented related to their unique 



characteristics 



K4 



Characteristic 


Learning Requirement 


• unusual retentiveness 


• exposure to quantities of information 


• advanced comprehension 


• access to challenging curriculum 


• varied interests 


• exposure to a wide range of topics 


• high level of verbal skills 


• opportunities for in-depth discussions 


• accelerated pace of thinking 


• individually paced learning 


• flexibility of thought processes 


• diversity of problem solving 


• goal-directed behaviours 


• longer time-spans for tasks 


• independence in learning 


• more independent learning tasks 


• sensitivity to the environment 


• exposure to affective learning 


• analytical thinking 


• exposure to higher-level thinking 


• self-motivation 


• active involvement in learning 


• high expectations 


• exposure to accepting setbacks 


• emotional sensitivity 


• values exploration in small groups 


• interest in adult issues 


• exposure to real world issues 


• holistic thinking 


• integrated approach to the curriculum 


• avid reader 


• exposure to diverse materials 



Students who are gifted and talented, in a differentiated learning 
environment, need time to learn on their own — individually and 
independently, time to learn with their chronological class peers, and 
time to learn with their mental age peers. 

Optimal learning conditions for students who are gifted and talented 



are: 



85 



an open, respectful, co-operative relationship among teachers, 
students and parents for planning and programming 



GT.128 



an environment which is rich in materials, with simultaneous access 
to many learning activities and an emphasis on experimentation and 
involvement 

a curriculum which is flexible and integrative, developing out of 
student needs 

a minimum number of whole class lessons 

the student as an active participant in a learning process which 
encourages self-direction, inquiry, experimentation and intervention 

assessment, contracting and evaluation used as an aid to student 
growth in learning 

cognitive, affective, physical and intuitive activities as valued 
aspects of the classroom experience 

an atmosphere of trust, acceptance and respect. 



Curriculum Modification 

This section provides an overview of some strategies which have 
proven successful with gifted and talented students. Previously, these 
strategies were often taught as isolated skills in the hope that they would 
be transferred to other learning situations. Although these strategies are 
still useful, they need to be enfolded in a meaningful context so that 
students have a comprehensive repertoire to draw on in any given 
situation. 

Ultimately, the effectiveness of a strategy is measured by whether or not 
the student can demonstrate the knowledge, skills or attitudes expected. 
Some tips: 

• give a particular strategy time to work 

• track strategies used with a particular student 

• do not discount a strategy simply because it did not work in the past; 
the timing or the setting may not have been correct 

• be prepared, however, to modify or change a strategy if student 
feedback suggests it is not working. 

Appropriate curriculum modifications for gifted and talented students 
should be organized according to the educational needs and interests of 
students and teachers. The following chart explains the various 
strategies for differentiation, as well as suggestions for their use and 
why they would be appropriate in the instruction of students who are 
gifted and talented. Many of these strategies are described in the 
following pages. 



GT.129 



Instructional and Management Strategies for Differentiation 



86 



Strategy 


Description 
of Strategy 


Suggestions for Use 
with Gifted Learners 


Why Appropriate 
for Gifted Learners 


Compacting 


Assesses student's prior 
knowledge on a topic. 
Excuses him or her 
from mastered material. 
Plans for learning what 
is not known and frees- 
up time for enrichment 
or accelerated study. 


• Explain process to 
students and parents. 

• Document 
preassessment and 
plans/timelines for 
accelerated or 
enrichment study. 

• Allow for student 
choice in enrichment 
study. 


• Recognizes prior 
knowledge and allows for 
independent pursuit in 
areas of interest or 
passion. 

• Eliminates boredom. 


Independent Projects 


Student and teacher 
identify problems or 
topics of interest to the 
student and plan 
investigation and 
synthesis for findings. 


• Build on student 
interest. 

• Allow freedom, but 
provide scaffolding and 
guidance. 

• Negotiate and document 
criteria, goals, timelines. 

• Use process log to 
document project 
proceedings. 


• Allows for long-term in- 
depth work in areas of 
passion and interest. 

• Teaches planning and 
research skills. 

• Encourages independence 
and motivation. 

• Allows work with 
complex and abstract 
ideas. 


Interest 
Centres/Groups 


Offers enrichment and 
meaningful study for 
students who can 
demonstrate mastery 
with required work. 


• Ensure the task is 
suitably complex. 

• Allow students of like 
interests and abilities to 
work together. 

• Involve learner in 
creating centre or group. 

• Allow large blocks of 
time. 

• Provide more depth in 
fewer topics. 


• Allows opportunity for 
study in greater breadth 
and depth, and in areas 
beyond regular 
curriculum. 

• Allows for student 
choice. 

• Enables and encourages 
students to make 
connections between 
fields and topics. 


Flexible Skills 
Grouping 


Students are placed into 
groups according to 
their readiness and 
needs. Movement 
among groups is based 
on ability and growth in 
a given skill. 


• Exempt learners from 
already mastered basic 
skills work. 

• Place required skill 
work in a meaningful 
context. 

• Ensure development of 
advanced knowledge 
and skills in areas of 
talent. 


• Acknowledges quick 
mastery and recall of 
information. 

• Provides opportunity for 
participation in advanced 
work and development of 
advanced skills, such as 
production and 
expression. 

• Allows independent work 
at student's own pace 



GT.130 



^ 



Instructional and Management Strategies for Differentiation (cont'd) 



Strategy 


Description 
of Strategy 


Suggestions for Use 
with Gifted Learners 


Why Appropriate 
for Gifted Learners 


Tiered Assignments 


In a heterogeneous 
grouping, use varied 
levels of activities and 
approaches to suit 
students' abilities. 
Build on prior 
knowledge and prompt 
continued growth. 


• Use advanced 
materials. 

• Ensure open-ended, 
complex activities that 
require students to 
transform ideas rather 
than merely reproduce 
them. 


• Provides meaningful 
work with peers of 
similar interest and 
readiness. 

• Allows early exploration 
and application of 
principles. 

• Encourages broader 
reading. 


Learning Ontres 


Provide stations or 
collections of materials 
learners use to explore 
topics or practise skills. 
Provides study in 
greater breadth and 
depth on interesting and 
important topics. 


• Ensure learning-centre 
tasks that require 
transformation and 
application. 

• Build in student choice, 
rather than requiring all 
students do all tasks at 
all centres. 

• Monitor what students 
do and learn at centres. 


• Draw on and develops 
advanced thinking, 
reading, research and 
technology skills. 

• Allows for independence. 


Mentorships/ 
Apprenticeships 


Student works with a 
resource teacher, media 
specialist, parent 
volunteer or community 
member to develop a 
project. Helps students 
develop skills of 
production in a field and 
career awareness. 


• Match the mentor with 
student's talent/interest 
area. 

• Document agreements 
concerning roles, goals 
and progress for 
mentor, student, 
teacher and parent. 


• Allows students to work 
on expert-lev el problems 
and tasks in relevant 
context. 

• Allows adult-level 
conversation. 

• Introduces student to 
meaningful yardsticks of 
performance. 

• Draws on creativity. 


Contracts/ 
Management Plans 


Establishes an 
agreement between 
student and teacher 
outlining arrangements 
for agreed-upon tasks 
and methods of 
completion. 


• Focus the contract on 
concepts, themes or 
problems and integrate 
basic skills into 
required projects or 
products. 

• Establish clear and 
rigorous rules and 
standards for success in 
writing at the outset. 


• Eliminates need for 
unnecessary skills work 
and places skills in 
relevant, high-interest 
tasks. 

• Allows for independent, 
advanced, extended study 
on topics of interest. 

• Encourages students to 
generalize, make 
connections and be 
original. 



GT.131 



Instructional and Management Strategies for Differentiation (cont'd) 


Strategy 


Description 


Suggestions for Use 


Why Appropriate 


of Strategy 


with Gifted Learners 


for Gifted Learners 


High-level Questions 


Teacher poses questions 


• Use open-ended 


• Taps into thinking 




that draw on advanced 


questions which 


talents. 




levels of information, 


require learners to 


• Develops metacognition 




require leaps of 


combine advanced 


(awareness of one's 




understanding and 


information with 


thinking). 




challenge thinking in 


complex thinking 


• Moves student beyond 




class discussions and on 


requirements. 


easy facility with glib 




tests. 


• Require students to 


answers to developing 






defend answers. 


logic and integrity in 
substantiating answers 
with reason and evidence. 



Strategies for Instruction 

The boxes included in the left margins of this section indicate which 
theoretical models support the various strategies discussed. See 
Section 2 for more information on the models. 





Marland 


V 




Renzulli 


■/ 




Gardner 


•/ 


n 


Sternberg 


•/ 


E*l 


Treffinger 


S 


■♦■ 


Gagne 
Stanley 






Feldhusen 


-/ 




Berts 


y 



Questioning Techniques 

Through effective questioning, students can be taught to put together 
facts and evidence, understand concepts or "big ideas," draw 
conclusions, determine and support generalizations, and identify and 
support theories. Open-ended questions invite more thinking, both 
critical and creative, and nurture the development of students' capacity 
to frame their own questions. Ultimately, the goal is to have students 
ask more productive questions. 

See the following page for sample questions. 



GT.132 



Sample Questions 



Type 


Goal 


Key Strategies 


Examples 


Quantity Questions 


To balance 


Brainstorming 


Reproductive questions 


Questions which elicit "listing" 


reproductive and 




List the capital cities of Canada's 


responses 


productive 




1 provinces. 




responses 




Productive questions 

Choose a new capital city for each 
of any five provinces and provide 
reasons to support each choice. 


Compare/Contrast Questions 


To stimulate high- 


Using forced 


How is friendship like a peanut butter 


Questions which direct 


level thinking 


associations 


sandwich? 


attention to similarities and 






How is a peach different from a 


differences 






watermelon? 


Feelings/Opinions/ 


To motivate 


Partnering . . . 


Would you rather watch a video or 


Personification Questions 


students to value 


bringing teacher 


read a novel? 


Questions which invite 


their opinions 


and student 


Give reasons for vour choice. 


students to respond from a 




together on an 




personal perspective 




emotional level 




Divergent Questions 


To foster creative 


Brainstorming in 


What would happen if Wayne Gretzky 


Questions which prompt a 


thinking 


small groups, with 


became your teacher for a day? 


reorganization of reality 




partners 


In what ways might you use a brick? 


Open-ended Questions 


To encourage 


Synthesizing, 


What are some things that happen 


Questions which require more 


consideration of 


analyzing. 


when computers replace 


than one answer; questions that 


many possible 


evaluating 


employees? 


cannot be answered with a 


answers 




How might Quebec be encouraged to 


simple "yes" or "no" response 






remain in Canada? 



Higher Order Thinking: Questioning and Beyond 
Bloom's Taxonomy 87 

Bloom's model describes six levels of thinking, arranged in a sequential 
manner (Knowledge, Comprehension. Application, Analysis. Synthesis, 
Evaluation). Susan Winebrenner has altered the original sequence. She 
places evaluation before synthesis because she believes that students 
need to evaluate their opinions after analysis. This arrangement implies 
that the two lower levels (knowledge and comprehension) require more 
literal and less complex thinking than the upper or higher levels 
(analysis, evaluation and synthesis). Application is somewhat of a 
"swing" category, depending on the complexity of the task. 

• Knowledge is simply recall. Students can say they know something 
if they can recall it to recite or write down. 

• Comprehension means students can say what they know in their 
own words. Retelling a story, stating the main idea, or translating 
from another language are several ways in which students can 
demonstrate that they comprehend or understand what they have 
learned. 



GT.133 



• Application means that students can apply what they have learned 
from one concept to another. For example, they might use their 
knowledge of fractions to double a baking recipe or may be required 
to decide when to use certain math formulas. 

• Analysis means that students can understand the attributes of 
something so that its component parts may be studied separately and 
in relation to one another. Asking students to compare and contrast, 
categorize and/or recognize inference, opinions or motives provides 
experience in analysis. 

• Evaluation gives students opportunities to judge what they have 
analyzed. For this reason, the model that follows considers evaluation 
before analysis, since it is natural to ask students to give their opinions 
or state preferences about something they are analyzing. 

• Synthesis is the most complex and difficult level of thinking. It 
requires students to create a thought, idea or product that is novel or 
original. All the activities called creative thinking give students 
experience with synthesis. Going further, when students can take bits 
and pieces of several theories or combine ideas from different sources 
to create an original perspective, they are engaging in synthesis. 

Taxonomy of Thinking 



Category 


Definition 


Trigger Words 


Products 


Synthesis 


Re-form individual parts to make 


compose, design, invent. 


lesson plan, song, poem. 




a new whole 


create, hypothesize, construct, 
forecast, rearrange parts, 
imagine 


story, ad, invention 


Evaluation 


Judge value of something vis-a- 


judge, evaluate, give opinion. 


decision, rating/grades. 




vis criteria 


viewpoint, prioritize. 


editorial, debate, 




Support judgement 


recommend, critique 


critique, defence/verdict 


Analysis 


Understand how parts relate to a 


investigate, classify, 


survey, questionnaire, 




whole 


categorize, compare, contrast, 


plan, solution, report, 




Understand structure and motive 


solve 


prospectus 




Note fallacies 






Application 


Transfer knowledge learned in 


demonstrate, use guides. 


recipe, model, artwork, 




one situation to another 


maps, charts, etc., build, cook 


demonstration, crafts 


Comprehension 


Demonstrate basic understanding 


restate, give examples, 


drawing, diagram. 




of concepts and curriculum 


explain, summarize, translate, 


response to question, 




Translate to other words 


show symbols, edit 


revision 


Knowledge 


Ability to remember something 


tell, recite, list, memorize, 


workbook pages, quiz, 




previously learned 


remember, define, locate 


test, exam, vocabulary, 
facts in isolation 



GT.134 



Other Uses for Bloom's Taxonomy 

Teachers can use levels of questioning to provide assignments that meet 
a wide range of needs and provide choices so that students become 
more engaged in their own learning. 

Students can use Bloom's Taxonomy to: 

• design questions which involve higher-level thinking; for example: 

- in a co-operative group, design a review quiz on a unit of study 
which is exchanged for completion with another group 

- develop a list of personal questions they have about a new unit of 
study 

- write questions that occur to them as they read a novel in their 
response journals 

- use the Bloom's Taxonomy model on the previous page to create 
questions for teachers to use for discussions or tests — once 
students have learned the language of the taxonomy, they can 
create a certain number of questions by category 

• direct independent projects; for example: 

- a pair develops a learning centre for the class based on a unit of 
study using Bloom's taxonomy — other students use the centre for 
enrichment 

- a student develops research questions for independent study and 
proposes a product to demonstrate learning 

• demonstrate learning; for example: 

- at a student-led conference, share examples of learning reflected at 
different levels. 



GT.135 



Build Blocks to Think" 




Hi 



*N 






SYNTHESIS— Create 




EVALUATION— Judge 



ANALYSIS— Relationships 



\ 






APPLICATION— Use 




KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION 



GT.136 



The taxonomy, in the form of a reference list of process verbs and 
possible products linked with each level of thinking, helps teachers to: 

• refine oral questioning by purposefully developing a short list of 
questions for a particular lesson 

• design written assignments or questions that involve students in all 
levels of thinking 

• consider suggesting different products for students, allowing for the 
element of choice. 

Using verbs at various levels can help teachers prepare questions which 
will take students to higher levels of thinking. Select a verb from a 
level to create a question or activity for students. Direction for a 
product may be included or may be left to students' choice. Some 
teachers post Bloom's Taxonomy and several verbs from each level to 
serve as prompts when asking questions. 



Process Verbs 



89 



1. Knowledge 






Process Verbs 






ask 


list 


recall 


count 


listen 


recite 


define 


match 


recognize 


describe 


memorize 


record 


draw 


name 


select 


fill in 


observe 


show 


find 


pick 


tabulate 


identify 


point 


trace 


indicate 


quote 


underline 


label 


read 


write 


Products 






fact chart 




recite a poem 


map 




timeline 


memorize information 


worksheet 


read a book 







2. Comprehension 




Process Verbs 






associate 


discuss 


outline 


change 


distinguish 


paraphrase 


compare 


expand 


reorganize 


contrast 


extend 


restate 


define 


locate 


reword 


differentiate 


match 


translate 


Products 






choral reading 




picture story 


cross-classification chart 


retell story 


demonstrate 




teach lesson 


illustrate story 




translate 


interpret 







GT.137 



3. Application 






Process Verbs 






apply 


graph 


practise 


chart 


group 


record 


code 


illustrate 


report 


collect 


interview 


simulate 


construct 


manipulate 


sketch 


demonstrate 


model 


solve 


dramatize 


organize 


track 


examine 


paint 


use 


experiment 


plan 




Products 






collage 


illustration 


puzzle 


collection 


map 


scrapbook 


construction 


mobile 


sculpture 


diagram 


model 


skit 


diary 


photographs 


stitchery 


diorama 


picture 




display 


poster 





4. Analysis 






Process Verbs 






analyze 


examine 


research 


categorize 


explain 


search 


classify 


group 


separate 


correlate 


inspect 


simplify 


diagram 


interpret 


sort 


discover 


memorize 


survey 


dissect 


order (seriate) 


uncover 


divide 


relate 




Products 






cartoons 


diagram 


secret code 


chart 


fact file 


survey 


commercial 


family graph 


tree diagram 


contract 


questionnaire 




crossword puzzle 


report 





5. Synthesis 






Process Verbs 






adapt 


devise 


predict 


advertise 


estimate 


prepare 


blend 


form 


prescribe 


change 


formulate 


produce 


combine 


imagine 


role play 


compose 


infer 


suppose 


create 


invent 


transform 


design 


modify 




develop 


originate 




Products 






abstract 


magazine 


recipe 


advertisement 


mural 


song 


comic strip 


news article 


story 


conversation 


pantomime 


structure 


dance 


play 


TV/radio show 


game 


poem 


toy 


invention 


puppet show 


treasure hunt 



6. Evaluation 






Process Verbs 






appraise 


debate 


judge 


assess 


decide 


justify 


award 


defend 


measure 


choose 


determine 


prove 


conclude 


dispute 


rank 


consider 


editorialize 


recommend 


criticize 


evaluate 


select 


critique 


grade 


test 


Products 






court trial 


panel 




debate 


recommendation 


discussion 


research 


paper 


editorial 


self-evaluation 


essay 


survey 




letter 







Questioning is at the heart of all work in a classroom. In the following 
chart of questioning samples, notice that students of all ages may be 
encouraged to think at different levels. Also note the strong link 
between questioning and product. 



GT.138 



Sample Questions/ Activities Developed Using Bloom's Taxonomy 





Primary 


Junior 


Senior 




Birds of Prey 


Flight 


Women in Society 


Knowledge 


Describe the beak of a 


Identify the important 


Describe the role of 


recalling or recognizing 


bird of prey. 


elements of wing design 


women in ancient 


information from 


What are the names of 


that we have discussed. 


Greece ... in medieval 


memory 


birds of prey we have 




Europe . . . during 




studied? 




World War II . . . 


Comprehension 


Outline how birds of 


Restate what you know 


Outline some of the 


understanding meaning. 


prey use camouflage to 


about wing design of 


changes that have taken 


changing information 


survive. 


paper airplanes while 


place in women's roles 


from one form to 


Compare the beaks of 


looking at a 747. 


across the centuries. 


another, discovering 


the owl and eagle. 






relationships 








Application 


Make a chart of a bird's 


Construct many paper 


Interview a woman 


using learning or 


environment, its family 


airplanes. Record the 


from a different era in a 


information in new 


life and food. 


effect of changes in 


role play. 


situations 




wings. 




Analysis 


Classify these birds of 


If we look at a diagram 


Correlate a famous 


separating information 


prey by their hunting 


of a bird and a plane, 


woman with the values 


into basic parts so that 


methods. 


what parts are related? 


and era she lived in. 


its organizational 






What factors ensured 


structure can be 






her place in history? 


understood: identifying 








elements and 








relationships 








Synthesis 


If we were to write a 


Design an aircraft of the 


What impact might 


combining parts into 


factual book on birds of 


future. 


media/advertising have 


new or original pattern; 


prey, what information 


Create a prospectus 


on the perceived roles 


involves creativity 


would be important to 


outlining the benefits. 


of women today? 




include? 


uses and superior 


Transform a present 




Design a table of 


features of this aircraft. 


day TV commercial by 




contents for a book like 
this. 




infusing new values. 


Evaluation 


If you were a small 


Judge the entries in 


If you were to write a 


judging whether or not 


animal, which bird of 


order to award a 


letter to the editor on 


something is acceptable 


prey would you think the 


research grant. What 


the issue of all-girl 


or unacceptable 


fiercest? 


criteria would you use? 


schooling, what view 


according to definite 


Why? 


Judge the designs and 


would you take and 


standards 




defend your selection. 


how would you support 
your view? 



GT.139 



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Creative Thinking 

Students who are gifted often demonstrate original ideas, seeing endless 
possibilities. They like to play with words, experiment with ideas and 
hunches, and are fluent in generating and elaborating upon ideas. 

Creativity is described as using one's resources to develop a novel, 
fresh solution to a particular problem. Creativity can be cultivated in 
everyone and can be taught directly. Students can develop their creative 
will, creative productivity and creative living to a higher level through 
opportunity, exampic and encouragement. However, there are always 
substantial differences in the degree to which students' creative 
potential is affected by direct instruction in creative thinking. Some 
students take longer to respond to open-ended instructional activities. 
Teachers should be prepared for these differences and be more attentive 
to students who are less receptive. 

Nurturing Creativity 

Some teaching strategies are conducive to providing opportunities for 
students to exercise and extend their creative thinking skills — their 
ingenuity, originality and insightfulness. The following are examples of 
activities for stimulating students' creative thought processes in the areas 
of fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. 

Fluency (generating a number of ideas or answers) 

• Brainstorm a variety of ways to prevent traffic jams. 

• List all the situations where a teaspoon might be useful. 

• What might happen if elves stole everyone's buttons? 

• List as many as possible: blue items, toys, round items, things that 
smell good, things that taste bad. 

Flexibility (classifying, moving to contrasting categories) 

• How many different ways might you classify the contents of your 
bedroom? 

• Combine the features of a wristwatch with those of an electric 
toothbrush. Describe the new gadget. 

• How might a teenager's life be affected if there were no telephones? 

Originality (a unique, one-of-a-kind response) 

• From a brainstormed list of birds, choose the one that is most 
unusual. 

• Think of unusual uses for a sheet of paper, a milk carton. 

Elaboration (adding great detail) 

• Describe a hummingbird as it drinks from a tiger lily. 

• Draw a cross-section (cut-away) of a medieval castle. 

• Sketch a decorated wedding cake. 



GT.140 



SCAMPER 

Another way to enhance creative thinking is the SCAMPER approach. 
The seven steps are outlined below. To implement the strategy, think 
about a topic of concern and ask, "To create a unique solution, what 
might I . . ." 

Substitute, simplify, subtract: other materials, make it streamlined, 
take away parts, other power sources, make it easier, reduce in 
number, other approaches, make it more natural, change one part, 
other ingredients, other processes, other people, other places 

V^ombine: ideas, uses, purposes 

Adapt: other parts, ingredients, motion, colour, flavour, functions, 
sounds, textures 

IViagnify, modify, minimize: make it bigger, make it smaller, 
condense, make multi-coloured, make lower, add time, add sound, 
make it lighter, make it a stronger odour, understate, make it a higher 
form, exaggerate its shape, make some parts bigger or thicker or 
stronger 

lut to other uses: new ways to use, other uses if modified, other 
places to use, other people to reach 

Hiliminate: minify, condense, lower, shorter, lighter, omit, split up 

rvearrange: interchange parts, other patterns, other layouts, other 
sequences, change pace, change schedule, reverse, transpose cause 
and effect, opposites, turn it backwards, reverse roles, turn it upside 
down. 

For more information on this strategy, see SCAMPER: Games for 
Imagination Development (1971) by R. F. Eberle, Buffalo, NY: D.O.K. 
Publishers or Scamper On (1981) also by R. F. Eberle, Buffalo, NY: 
D.O.K. Publishers. 



GT.141 



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For example, if the topic were Animals of the Arctic, in what ways 
might we: 

Substitute, simplify, subtract — the voice of the raven for the howl of 
a wolf . . . how would the raven feel about this? 

C^ombine — the head of a musk ox with the body of a whale . . . give 
your new creature a name. 

Adapt — your backyard so that a polar bear might spend a weekend 
there. 

IVlagnify, modify, minimize — the diet of a wolf to make it strictly 
vegetarian. 

lut to other uses — the tail of an Arctic hare. 

Jl/liminate — mice from an owl's diet . . . what would it eat instead? 

XVearrange — a penguin's colour scheme to make him less formal. 

Creative Problem Solving (CPS) 

A more complex form of creative thinking, now widely taught to 
students who are gifted, is creative problem solving — "a process . . . 
for approaching a problem in an imaginative way . . . resulting in 
effective action" (Noller, 1977). 

The CPS model (Treffinger, Isaksen & Dorval, 1994) has grown and 
changed as a result of outcomes of recent research and through feedback 
from numerous effective creative problem solvers who have used it in 
dealing with real problems. 

The three major components and the six specific stages of CPS can be 
described as follows: 



I. Understanding the Problem 



1 . Mess finding 

2. Data finding 

3. Problem finding 



II. Generating Ideas 



4. Idea finding 



III. Planning for Action 



5. Solution finding 

6. Acceptance finding. 



GT.142 



It is not always necessary to use all three components or all six stages of 
the model. The visual is a reminder that the components of CPS can be 
applied without adhering to a fixed or prescriptive lock-step sequence. 



GENERATING 
IDEAS 



UNDERSTANDING 
THE PROBLEM 




PLANNING 
FOR ACTION 



A more detailed description of each step provides a guided tour of the 
process. With experience in using the model, teacher-facilitators will 
decide when a step can be eliminated. It will also become clear that 
each component encompasses both divergent and convergent thinking 



I. Understanding the Problem 



Mess finding 

Mess finding involves exploring the situation to probe interests, 
experiences and concerns. A number of general topics present 
the "mess." If the mess situation does not present specific 
information, the following questions may enhance exploration. 

• Focusing questions: 

What situation demands attention? 
What challenges are presented? 

• Clarifying questions: 

Give me a specific example of ... ? 
What do you mean by . . .? 



GT.143 



• Converging questions: 

What concerns are most important? 

This step is eliminated when specific data about a general topic 
is presented. 

2. Data finding 

Data finding is the enumeration of known facts about the 
situation. When an article, chapter or other written material is 
provided, the information contained becomes the data. 
Otherwise, experience and knowledge provide the data. Data 
finding clarifies the situation through the listing of all that is 
known or should be known. Focusing questions must be asked. 
Extending questions are asked when appropriate. 

• Focusing questions: 

What are some things we know about the situation? 

From our readings (or experience, or discussion) what do we 

know about . . .? 

• Extending questions: 

What are some things we would like to know about the 

situation? 

How might we find out some of the unknowns? 

How might we learn more about the situation? 

• Clarifying questions: 
What do you mean by . . .? 
How might I write that? 

3. Problem finding 

Problem finding requires an analysis and evaluation of the data 
to identify as many as possible questions or problems suggested 
by the information. Several problems will be identified. A 
problem statement or combination of problem statements is 
developed to express the heart of the situation. The situation is 
narrowed to a selected major problem that is stated in a solvable 
form. The choice of the action word (verb) directs the focus of 
the problem. For example, "In what ways might we encourage, 
or enforce, or eliminate city bylaws related to pet control?" 
Some instruction regarding the development of problem 
statements might be necessary. Focusing on stating, selecting 
and providing reasoning for the identified problem statement are 
required steps. 

• Focusing questions: 

Which parts of this situation contain our problem? 
What information identifies our problem? 



GT.144 



Stating the problem: 

How might we clearly state the problem? 

Restate this problem in the "in what ways might we . . .' 

format. 

Selecting a problem: 

Which of these is the best statement of the problem? 

Providing reasoning: 

Why do you think that is the best statement? 

Why is this the best problem statement? 



II. Generating Ideas 



4. Idea finding 

Idea finding searches for as many possible or alternative ideas to 
serve as solutions to the identified problem statement. 
Brainstorming and SCAMPER are effective means for listing a 
variety of solutions, extending the possibilities. Prior to this 
step, a review of these processes is helpful. 

• Focusing questions: 

In what ways might we solve this problem? 

• Extending questions: 

What completely different solutions might we list? 
Which of these might be combined, enlarged, modified? 
Which solutions might be substituted, combined, adapted, 
modified, magnified, minified, put to another use, 
eliminated, rearranged? 



III. Planning for Action 



Solution finding 

Solution finding provides evaluative criteria to determine which 
alternatives provide the greatest potential for solving the 
problem. The ideas are analyzed, and evaluated carefully and 
systematically. Determined criteria are applied to the most 
promising solutions. After criteria are determined, they are used 
to evaluate the solutions. A grid is used to rank each solution 
according to each identified criterion. 



• 



Focusing questions: 

In what ways might we evaluate these ideas? 

Selecting criteria: 

Which (three to five) of these criteria would be best to judge 

the ideas? 



GT.145 



• Evaluating solutions: 

Using a scale of 1-5 with 1 for terrible and 5 for great, rate 
the solutions on the criteria. 

Using each of the criteria, rank the five best solutions, with 1 
being the least appropriate and 5 being best. 

6. Acceptance finding 

Acceptance finding is a real-life skill that considers audiences 
who will accept and resist the ultimate solution. Obstacles, 
objections and difficulties are analyzed to effect a workable, 
real-life solution to the problem. At this step, an action plan for 
implementing the solution is developed. 



• 



• 



Focusing questions: 

Who might accept our solution? Why? 

Who might reject our solution? Why? 

Of the resistors' and acceptors' concerns, what might we 

consider important in the implementation of our solution? 

Planning questions: 

What steps must be taken to implement the solution? 

How might we organize this solution so that it is easily 

facilitated? 



The following sample problem provides a brief overview of how the 
steps in creative problem solving might play out in a classroom 
situation. Suppose the topic is "Food, Food, Food." 



I. Understanding the Problem 



1 . Mess finding 

Every day, throughout the world, restaurants throw away a great 
amount of uneaten food. Public health laws prevent them from 
reserving or reusing this food, and, for similar reasons, they 
cannot simply give it away to hungry people. 

Even if it can't be served and eaten, there might be a number of 
other creative ways to use this discarded food. 

Your challenge in this problem is to consider new and unusual 
uses for discarded, uneaten food, and to develop a promising 
solution for this problem. 



GT.146 



Data-Finding 

• What do we know from the article "Food, Food, Food?" 

- Uneaten food is discarded from restaurants. 

- Laws prevent reserving uneaten food. 

- Unused food can not be given to hungry people. 

• Conduct research to learn: 

- How many kilograms of food are discarded each month? 
(Survey at least five restaurants.) 

• Determine which categories of food are discarded; e.g., 
vegetables, fruits, meat/fish, poultry, dairy products, etc. and 
approximately how much in each category. 

• Review public health laws which govern the disposal of 
food. 

Problem finding 

• Brainstorm: what concerns arise from the above situation? 

- How might restaurants plan more effectively to avoid 
unused food? 

- How might unused food be preserved for future use? 

- Are public health laws too restrictive? 

- Could many of the unused food items be recycled? 

• Identify KEY problem 

- In what ways might unused restaurant food be used? 



II. Generating Ideas 



4. Idea finding 

• Brainstorm: In what ways might unused, uneaten food be 
recycled? 
- Some typical responses might include: 

• feed it to animals at the zoo 

• feed it to domestic farm animals 

• dump it in a compost box. 



III. Planning for Action 



Solution finding 

• Take each of the ideas from Step 4 and through group 
discussion rate them on a scale; e.g.. Excellent (5 points), 
Superior (4 points), Good (3 points). Fair (2 points), Possible 
(1 point). 



GT.147 



• Consider the following suggested criteria: 

- cost of implementation; e.g., sorting, transporting 

- time required 

- legality of the potential solution 

- any other criterion deemed appropriate. 

• Choose the solution with the highest number of points 

6. Acceptance finding 

• Discuss in small groups: 

- How might the chosen solution be promoted and sold to 
restaurant owners and other key people involved in the 
recycling? 

• Action to be taken: 

- Brainstorm what has to be done and then decide who will 
do it; e.g., design posters, advertise on e-mail, purchase 
appropriate containers to transport discarded food. 

• New challenges: 

- resistance from commercial suppliers of animal food 
products 

- more demand for discarded food than the supply. 

For those wishing to explore additional practice problems, consult 
Practice Problems for Creative Problem Solving (2 n edition) ( 1 99 1 ), 
by Donald J. Treffinger, published by Center for Creative Learning, 
Inc., P.O. Box 14100-N.E. Plaza, Sarasota, Florida, U.S.A., 
34278^100. 



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Independent Study 93 

Independent study is an individualized learning experience that allows 
students to select a topic, define problems or questions, gather and 
analyze information, apply skills and create a product to show what has 
been learned. 



GT.148 



Purposes 

Although the purposes of independent study can be generalized for all 
students, individual factors, such as entry-level skills and interests will 
cause different purposes to be emphasized for different students. The 
general purposes of independent study include: 

• developing self-directedness 

• acquiring learning-to-learn skills 

• learning to gather, analyze and report information 

• stimulating the pursuit of personal interests 

• encouraging in-depth understanding of some content areas 

• acquiring planning and research skills at advanced levels. 



Basics 

A successful independent study program is dependent on recognizing 
and planning for these basic elements: 

student self-selection of what is to be studied 

co-operative teacher-student planning of what will be studied and 

how it will be shown 

alternative ideas for gathering and processing information 

multiple resources that are readily available 

teacher intervention through formal and informal student-teacher 

dialogues 

skills integrated into the content area being studied 

time specifically allowed for working and conferencing 

working and storage space 

sharing, feedback and evaluation opportunities 

student recognition for expertise and finished product 

established criteria for success 

advise parents of the independent study project. 



Teacher Intervention 

Student-teacher interaction is necessary during independent study. The 
interaction may be a formally structured conference or a casual 
conversation as the teacher circulates around the room while students 
are working. The teacher intervenes with the student in order to: 

• keep in touch 

• help with problem solving 

• provide direction 

• open up new areas for exploration and production 

• give encouragement 

• introduce, teach and/or reinforce the needed skill. 



GT.149 



Developing an Independent Study Plan 

In developing an independent study plan, it is important to consider the 
following: 

• select and delimit a subject or topic 

• discuss and brainstorm possible sub-areas and questions to explore 
about the chosen subject or topic 

• formulate key questions or issues to pursue and answer 

• develop a commitment to a plan and a time sequence 

• locate and use multiple resources 

• create a product from the material learned 

• share findings from the study with classmates 

• evaluate the process, products and use of time from the study 

• explore possibilities which could extend the study into new areas of 
learning. 



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See Appendix 36, page GT.263 for an Independent 
Study and Research form. 



GT.150 




Determining Topics for Independent Study 

Topics can come from a variety of sources: 

• a part of the regular curriculum — an independent study of covered 
wagons as part of the social studies unit "The Westward Movement" 

• an extension of the regular curriculum — an independent study of 
how cities are developed after a study of the industrial revolution 

• a personal interest — an independent study related to a hobby, 
vacation, book or item that the student suggests 

• a skill to be developed — an independent study related to satisfying 
an expressed need, such as learning how to weave 

• a problem to be solved — an independent study focused on resolving 
a student-centered or real-world problem, such as finding out the 
causes of inflation 

• an event observed in the environment — an 
independent study stimulated by a real or 
local happening, such as the renovation of a 
recreational area at the neighbourhood park. 
See Appendices 37 and 38. pages 
GT.264— 266 for a list of generic project 
ideas. 

Student Readiness for Independent Study 94 

A key feature of successful independent study 
is realizing that students are at varying levels of 
readiness for independent work and planning 
accordingly. It may be helpful to envision a 
continuum from dependence toward 
independence in helping students plan 
independent investigations. 



GT.151 



Progression Toward Independent Learning Over Time 



Basic Skills 
of Independence 



Structured 
Independence 



Shared 
Independence 



Self-Guided 
Learning 



T 



T 



T 



J 



Making choices 
Finding answers 
Using resources 
Planning time 
Basic elements of 
critical and 
creative thinking 
Goal setting 
Follow-through 
Discussion of goal 
attainment 



Selecting from 
among topics 
Completing open- 
ended 

assignments 
Posing and 
answering 
questions 
Following preset 
timelines 
Self-evaluation 
according to 
prepared criteria 
Skills of problem 
solving 
Documenting 
stages in the 
process 



Student poses and 
teacher refines: 

• Problem 

• Design 

• Timelines 

• Process 

• Evaluation 
criteria 

Student documents 

process 

(Metacognition) 

Teache'r monitors 
process 



Student plans, 
executes, evaluates 

Teacher is available 
for consultation and 
feedback as needed 



High teacher structure 
Low student determination 
Short-term potential 
In-class completion 



Low teacher structure 
High student determination 
Long-term potential 
Out-of-class completion 



Some students are likely to be at a point of development where they 
require assistance in developing the basic skills of independence. These 
students may not begin by working with full-fledged independent 
studies, but rather will be aided by the teacher for a time in learning 
how to make choices, find information, use resources, plan their time, 
set and follow through with goals, measure goal attainment, and 
develop a basic vocabulary and practice of process skills or thinking 
skills, such as comparison, categorizing, originality, fluency, etc. Such 
students require high teacher structure and may at first be both more 
comfortable and successful with a lesser responsibility for designing 
their own work. They may benefit from short-term assignments that 
help develop comfort with skills which can facilitate their growth as 
more independent thinkers and learners, and may reach goals more 
satisfactorily when in-class time is given for tasks rather than assuming 
that students are ready for a leap into completing tasks at home. 



GT.152 



At the other end of the continuum are students who are ready for 
self-guided learning. These learners have well-developed skills of 
inquiry and most likely a strong sense of the contents of a particular 
field of study. They can pose their own questions for study, plan the 
study, carry out its steps, adjust plans as changing circumstances dictate 
and assess the effectiveness of their work. In this instance, little teacher 
structure is required because students demonstrate high readiness for 
self-determination. Such students may well remain absorbed in 
independent studies for long spans of time and may find it both pleasing 
and necessary to carry out major portions of the study outside of school. 
For these students, the teacher is primarily a colleague who converses 
with students about their work, raises questions that may help extend or 
clarify, and provides feedback (or secures an expert on the topic who 
can provide authentic feedback) as needed. 

In most classes, the majority of students fall somewhere in the centre of 
the dependence-independence continuum. Some of these students will 
be ready for structured independence and some for shared 
independence. 

Students in the structured independence category may be comfortable 
selecting from several proposed tasks designed by the teacher, or they 
may be ready to complete open-ended assignments in which the teacher 
establishes parameters for a task, but designs the task so that there are 
varied ways of completing it. They may be ready to pose key questions 
which result from previous study and seek answers for their questions, or 
may be guided by the teacher in doing so. They may be able to follow 
timelines which delineate points at which various segments of an 
investigation must be completed and reviewed. They may be comfortable 
evaluating their work according to criteria predetermined by the teacher, 
but with student input. They may be able to keep records of what they 
did at each stage of the project or investigation and describe their progress 
through the steps of problem solving. 

Students ready for shared independence have progressed to a point where 
they can begin to pose a problem for investigation, design an 
investigation, establish and generally adhere to timelines for their work, 
log their thinking processes as they work and measure their effectiveness 
according to criteria which they delineate. These students, however, still 
require a teacher who plays an active role in refining the design of the 
study, responding to work in progress, and assisting students in 
developing expanding awareness and vocabulary of their habits of work 
and thought. The teacher and students at this level of readiness 
collaborate as partners in the design and execution of the independent 
study. 



GT.153 



Many students will be between categories of development at any given 
time. For example, one student may be quite capable of generating a 
problem for study and a design for investigating the problem, but may 
lack skills of adhering to timelines without close teacher supervision. 
The point is for teachers to have a sense: 

• that movement toward independence is developmental 

• that there are specific skills which are required in order to develop 
independence 

• that students vary in their readiness to apply certain skills 

• of a student's readiness and encourage maximum application of 
skills by each student at his or her level of readiness. 

Suggestions for Successful Independent Study 95 

When students are ready to begin working at a shared independence or 
self-guiding level, they are ready to design independent studies with 
reasonably well-developed degrees of student determination and out-of- 
class long-term investigation potential. The following guidelines ensure 
greater success in independent study projects and may be modified for 
the readiness level of the student. 

• Have students propose a topic for study which they really care about, 
as opposed to one which is assigned. This maximizes intrinsic 
motivation and goes a long way toward ensuring follow through. 

• Be sure students read broadly about the topic before they describe 
the project. This ensures they understand the issues they will be 
studying if they proceed with the project. 

• Help students use a variety of resources for their study, including 
people and documents, as well as more traditional print sources. 
Steer clear of encyclopedias whenever possible. 

• Have students determine problems or issues which professionals in 
the field think are important and which those professionals 
themselves would study. This ensures open-ended pursuits which 
require thinking and problem solving for students who are likely 
advanced in their ability to deal with the topic in question. 

• Ensure that students develop timelines for completing the whole task 
as well as components of it. Keeping a simple calendar of the times 
worked and tasks completed on a given day (initialled by parents if 
possible) may be useful in helping both students and teacher monitor 
progress and work habits. Many students at the shared independence 
level need to have teachers and/or peers critique their work as it 
progresses to squelch procrastination and monitor quality. For these 
students, it will be wise to establish check-in dates. 



GT.154 



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Make sure students keep a process log of what they 
think and do as they work on their projects. The 
log may include sketches, photos, journal entries, 
etc. Such a log not only helps students become 
more aware of their thinking processes, but also 
helps teachers understand what transpired in 
creating a product whose appearance may belie its 
actual scope. See Appendix 39, page GT.267 for a 
Student Daily Log form. 

Have students plan from the outset to share their 
work with an audience which can appreciate and/or 
learn from what the students create. Students 
should participate in identifying and securing these 
audiences, and the audiences may range in size 
from one to many. 

Help students develop awareness of a range of 
possible final products, which may necessitate the 
use of computers, various art forms, various modes 
of oral communication, ways professionals in a 
field would present their work, etc. It is also 
important to see that students learn how to manage 
these forms appropriately. 



GT.155 



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Have students generate lists to evaluate 
the product. These lists of criteria should 
be developed early in the process and 
modified as necessary (typically with 
teacher consent) as the project develops. 
It is often important for the teacher to help 
students develop or refine these lists. Pre- 
existing criteria give students a sense of 
power over their own work and aid the 
teacher in evaluating final products with 
less fear of subjectivity. See Appendices 
40-43, pages GT.268-271 for sample 
project evaluation forms. 

Communicate with parents. Be sure 
parents know what the independent study- 
entails (components, goals, timelines, 
criteria), your feelings about the 
importance of skills of independence, 
what parents can do that is helpful and 
what they might do that is hurtful in 
fostering growth toward independence 
during the duration of the independent 
study, what to do if they have questions, 
etc. 



GT.156 






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• If independent projects may be worked on 
during class, be sure you and the students 
involved agree: 

- when it is appropriate to work on the 
independent study 

- where in the classroom/school they may 
work 

- what materials need to be at school to enable 
in-class work 

- other ground rules for in-class independent 
study. 

See Appendices 44-45, pages GT.272-273, for a 
sample independent study contract. 

Learning Contracts 

A learning contract is an effective tool which 
teachers may use to guide students in their choice 
of independent study. Learning contracts allow 
students to formally pursue an agreed task or 
interest area. A learning contract between student 
and teacher should specify the content to be 
covered, research strategies to be used, resources to be used, products to 
be achieved and a time span. Learning contracts can provide a way of 
helping students limit a task and define a product. Learning contracts 
often are a successful way to stimulate underachieving students who are 
gifted and talented. A sample learning contract follows on page 
GT.159. Also see Appendix 46, page GT.274 for a blank learning 
contract form. 

How to Use a Learning Contract 97 

• Collect enrichment materials that extend concepts taught in the 
chapter: 

- check the teacher's manual for ideas 

- enlist parents' help to create materials 

- provide answer keys. All materials should be self-correcting. 

• Design a master contract for each chapter: 

- in the top third, list the relevant text page numbers or concepts, 
with check-off spaces 

- in the middle third, list the enrichment options (alternate 
activities), with spaces for students to record their progress 

- in the bottom third, specify agreed-upon working conditions. 

• Make a pre-test or other type of assessment available when each new 
chapter or unit begins. 



GT.157 



Correct the assessment activity. Give contracts to students who 
demonstrate mastery of 80-85 per cent of the planned curriculum. 

Prepare contracts for qualified students: 

- check pages or concepts they have not mastered and others you 
want them to do 

- tell students they are not allowed to work on the checked items 
until you teach them to the whole class 

- explain that they will work on alternate enrichment activities when 
the class is learning things they have already mastered. 

Prepare the middle part of the contract with a menu of enrichment 
and extension activities: 

- start with one or two options for the first unit; add others cumulatively 

- always include several free-choice options. 

Meet with students on contract as a group: 

- explain contract procedures 

- explain that students may choose from these activities on days 
when they are excused from participating in a particular lesson 

- demonstrate the new enrichment activity for each unit — students 
can help each other learn about activities from previous units 

- show students how to keep track of the work they do 

- explain the working conditions listed on the bottom of the contract 
(some teachers display a working conditions chart in the room 
instead of having to include them on all contracts). 

Continue to meet with students on contract: 

- plan to meet at least twice a week or more often as necessary 

- work with students to help them develop the skills and 
independence they need to use enrichment materials 

- get student feedback about the enrichment options. 

Evaluate the work of students on contract: 

- grades should only reflect grade-level work — enrichment work 
should not be averaged in or students will resist it 

- alternate methods of assessment are perfectly acceptable. 



GT.158 



Math Contract 



98 





CHAPTER: Fractions 






NAME: Julie 








s Page/Concept 


s Page/Concept 


V 


Page/Concept 


60 


• 64 


S 


68 


/ 61 


65 




69 


62 


S 66 - Word Problems 


• 


70 - Review (even only) 


63 


67 


V 


Post-test 


ENRICHMENT OPTIONS: 


Choose tasks about fractions 








Special Instructions 






Versa-Tiles 








Write Story Problems 






S 


Cross Number Puzzles 


YOUR IDEA: 



WORKING CONDITIONS 

1. No talking to teacher while teacher is teaching 



2. When you need help and teacher is busy, ask someone else 



3. If no one can help you right away, keep trying yourself or go on to something else 



4. If you must go in and out of the room, do it quietly 



5. Don't bother anyone else 



6. Don't call attention to yourself 



Teacher's Signature: 



Student's Signature: 



GT.159 



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Project Planning and Research Skills 

Many students who are gifted can generate a wealth of ideas that 
become the focus of an independent or small group project. However, 
they may experience difficulties completing a project in a systematic, 
organized manner. They need to learn how to plan and conduct 
research in an efficient, effective way. 

Beginning as early as Grade 1 , students can be encouraged to set 
personal goals about what they want to find out, what knowledge they 
want to add to their repertoire, and what organizational and work skills 
they need to achieve their goals. The result is more likely to be a 
complete, more sophisticated project. 

The following step-by-step guidelines may be useful. 

CJTEP} 

Planning 

• Use a mind map to help students explore what they already know. 
What knowledge have they accumulated about the topic? 

- Define the central topic. 

- List the subheadings needed to explain the topic. (In an essay, 
these sub-headings would be paragraphs.) 

• The student should: 

- conduct some initial research: read books, talk to adults, use the 
Internet to discover what resources are available 

- skim tables of contents and indexes to look for key words relevant 
to the topic chosen 

- keep track of ideas gathered. On 3" x 5" cards, create a list of 
useful resources perused; e.g., title, author, pages or Internet 
addresses. 

• The student should: 

- list sources of information — primary sources (people, objects) 
and secondary sources (books, articles, Internet material) 

- use a rough notes notebook; devote 2-3 pages in the notebook to 
each sub-heading* 

- list necessary skills to acquire in order to gain access to these 
resources; e.g., how to conduct an interview. 

* This is a good time to teach note-taking skills and discuss the 
quality of information sources. 



GT.160 



• The student should: 

- write goals and objectives about what he or she wants to find out. 
The to do list may include: 

"I want to find out about the origins of the sun." 

"At the end of the project I will be able to ." 

(The teacher checks the list for relevancy of the objectives to the 
topic and feasibility of meeting the objectives within the time 
frame allowed.) 

• The student: 

- lists the skills or work processes to be learned in order to complete 
the task. 

(The teacher may teach such skills as precise writing, writing in 
one's own words, finding data in a library computerized catalogue 
or on the Internet. The teacher makes sure that students know 
how to access community resources, such as public libraries, 
museums, planetarium, etc.) 

• The student: 

- draws up a 4, 5 or 6 week calendar; e.g., 

Week One: Mind map . . . defining the topic and defining 

sub-headings 
Week Two: Learning of skills for information gathering 
Week Three: Collection of information . . . writing in your own 

words 
Week Four: The Rough Draft . . . What does this 

sentence/paragraph mean? Did I explain my 

information clearly? 
Week Five: The Final Draft with all pictures and headings. 

HAND WORK IN ON TIME 
Week Six: Learning the work so it can be presented as an oral 

presentation. 

The student should include in the above planning timetable an 
individual, weekly meeting with the teacher to go over the progress. 

Teaching the Skills for Information Gathering 

• Some important skills to teach are: 

- using rough notes 

- avoiding plagiarism 

- keyboarding 

- word processing 



GT.161 



- acknowledging references and sources 

- using charts and graphs 

- conducting phone and person-to-person interviews. 

• Teachers need to discuss the relevance of a skill the student needs to 
acquire and check to see that it has been learned correctly and used 
appropriately. 

• The teacher and student should continuously monitor the time 
schedule to see if the plan is on track. 

Step 3 

Gathering Information 

• Reconfirm that the headings give students clearly defined direction 
about what they want to know. Is relevant information noted under 
relevant headings? How are these headings linked to make sense of 
the overall topic? 

• The student should discard information sources that do not 
contribute to these headings. 

• The student prepares a glossary of technical words, names and dates 
to assist other readers of the project and checks spelling of terms. 

• The student edits for accuracy of information, unnecessary repetition 
and sentence syntax. 

Step 4 

The First Draft 

• From the rough notes and sketches, the student writes the rough 
draft. 

• The student should check to see that the rough draft reads well: 

- "What does this sentence/paragraph mean?" 

- "Is the sentence/paragraph relevant to the headings?" 



• 



The student should check to ensure that references, contents and a 
glossary (if necessary) are complete and in place: 

- references are listed in a bibliography 

- table of contents comes in front of the text 

- glossary appears after the text. 

The student proofreads for spelling and grammar. 



GT.162 



STEP 5 

The Final Draft 

• The student writes the material for final presentation: 

- checks for neatness 

• larger type headings 

• labelled pictures 

• graphs in place and labelled. 

• The student hands the work in on time. 

S^p 6 

The Oral Presentation 

• The student evaluates what he or she has learned and decides what 
part of that knowledge can be passed on to the rest of the class and/or 
identifies experts in the field of study. (The teacher prepares a 
checklist for speaking in front of audiences and generates some 
speaking activities for students to practise.) 

• The student prepares speech notes on 3" x 5" cards: 

- idea highlights 

- memorizes the talk. 

• The student: 

- prepares overhead transparencies 

- selects excerpts from CD or visual resources 

- photocopies any materials to be distributed to audience (if 
presentation is to be an illustrated talk) 

- is attentive to copyright. 

• The student rehearses the presentation. 

• Enjoy giving the presentation. 

5TEP7 

Assessment of the Process and Project 

• Assessment should be based on: 

- the planning skills acquired by the student 

- key skills and processes that are learned 

- oral presentation 

- final quality of the work. 

• Students should submit their: 

- project planning booklet 

- rough notes 

- rough draft 

- final draft. 



GT.163 



The project might be marked out of 1 00 per cent. The marks for 
each skill and process should be listed two to three weeks before 
hand-in time, so students know what has to be covered and 
completed to obtain top marks. You may change the marking 
schedule when other skills and processes need to be emphasized. 

A possible marking schedule for a written project follows. 



10% 


Front Page 

Does the cover page reflect an interesting project? 

Does it include: name, class, date, title, teacher's name, school? 


10% 


Contents, Glossary, References 

Do the contents include all headings and graphs? 

Are the glossary words clearly defined? Are there words in the project that should be in the glossary? 

Are all references shown clearly at the end? 


10% 


Spelling and Grammar 

Are all the words spelled correctly? 

Are sentences simple, follow logical patterns, clear to read and understand? 


10% 


In Your Own Words 

Have students used their own words? 

Have students made appropriate rough draft notes and good summaries? 

Have they plagiarized or referenced all quotes and pictures? 


10% 


In on Time 

Was each step of the project completed on time, and the final edition handed in on time? 


10% 


Interesting Project 

Did students obtain interesting information? 
Is it an improvement from previous work? 


10% 


Neat Headings, Diagrams, Pictures 

Have students ruled carefully, glued carefully, put things in horizontal? 
Are headings and pictures in the right order, under the correct headings? 
Can you read it? Is it legible? Have students used the correct colour pens? 


10% 


How Well did They Learn a New Skill? 

This is an individual mark, designed for each student and reflects a new skill. The project planning book, 

note book and rough draft should be checked to see if these skills have been mastered. 

Have they correctly used new project planning skills and community resources? 

Have they collected appropriate, original information? 

Have they edited well — used headings systematically and correctly from the mind map? 

Have they improved a skill since the last project? 


20% 


Oral Presentation 

Have students prepared for the oral work properly? Are there notes? Have they memorized what they are 

going to say? Are talk headings prepared on an overhead or written on chart paper? At the start of the talk 

did they gain the class interest by showing a picture or item? 

Have they prepared an activity for the class, so they can hear, see, touch, do? 

Has the speaker remembered to show positive body language while speaking, standing still, standing upright, 

smiling, using eye contact? 

Did the speaker speak loudly, slowly and clearly? 

Did they keep to the time limit? Was it too short or too long? 

Was the oral presentation easy to comprehend and follow? 

Was the oral presentation interesting? 



GT.164 



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Simulations 

Simulation is a strategy that invites students to respond as if they were 
part of the action (or interaction) being simulated. In a simulation, the 
classroom becomes the base of the theme and the students learn about 
the topic by taking on roles and becoming immersed in the theme. The 
simulation becomes a vehicle for allowing students to experience 
firsthand, topics they would otherwise just read or hear about. 
Simulations are extremely motivating as students not only take an active 
role in their learning but actually recreate an event or time in history and 
watch it unfold in their classroom. A simulation can be as simple as 
students becoming players on a checker board to becoming Ancient 
Egyptians living on the Nile, or constructing a museum and creating the 
artwork to hang on its walls. 



Simulations integrate easily into the curriculum, encompassing all 
subject areas, and develop not only students' academic knowledge but 
strengthen their emotional development and enhance their global 
awareness. Simulations are especially successful with gifted and 
talented students as they allow students to explore a topic in great detail 
and participate to the full extent of their own ability level. 

When selecting a simulation, it is important to select a topic that fits 
both teacher and student areas of interest. Laying the ground work is 
the most important step as it determines how much students will buy 
into the simulation and allows for full growth and development of the 
simulation. The more authentically the classroom is designed to set the 
scene for the simulation, the more successful the overall simulation will 
be. Greeting students on the first day in a theme-appropriate costume 
and manner is a great kick-off to any simulation. If students feel they 
are actually a part of the events being discussed, their learning becomes 
more real and natural, and they understand many more concepts. An 
excellent resource for simulations is Interaction Publishers, Inc. 
Address: DBA Interact, #101, 1825 Gillespie Way, El Cajon, CA, 
92020-1095; Telephone: (619)448-1474. They produce teacher-made 
units that are complete simulations which can be easily used and 
adapted into any classroom. 

The following strategies help make simulations more successful: 

• make sure you like the topic, as your enthusiasm ensures that 
students will buy in 

• read through the simulation plans a number of times to ensure that 
you know where it is going and your best route in getting your 
students there 

• have all the materials prepared prior to the start of the simulation 



GT.165 





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• break the objectives down into various intelligence or subject areas 
as it helps you plan your time more effectively 

• select student roles and groupings carefully so that students can help 
each other, but also give students the opportunity to develop their 
lesser-developed skill areas 

• don't be afraid to adjust as you proceed, students will let you know 
how it is going and what needs to change. 

Evaluation of simulations is simple if anecdotal records and 
observations are kept throughout the course of the unit. Students' work 
can also be assessed and graded if necessary, and a final unit test can 
help determine students' overall understanding of what they have 
experienced. Simulations can be a valuable and fun way of teaching 
gifted students as long as they are approached with a positive and 
enthusiastic attitude. 

Modification Through Acceleration" 

Acceleration is the practice of providing students with a higher than 
normal level of instruction commensurate with their learning needs. It 
occurs when classroom teachers provide students with advanced 
curriculum, when students skip a grade, or when they take specific 
courses at higher levels. 

Students can be accelerated by grade when they are advanced in all 
areas, or by subject. In the latter case, a student in Grade 6 may be 
doing math at an advanced level and language arts at his or her age 
level. 



The following are acceleration programming options: 

• continuous progress — students proceed through the curriculum at 
their own pace 

• grade skipping 

• content acceleration — content is accelerated by enhancing the 
degree of abstraction, depth and breadth 

• testing out course requirements (pretesting of material to be covered 
from the prescriptive curriculum to determine a student's need to 
participate in class lessons — students can be exempted from 
sections of a course where mastery is demonstrated, allowing time 
for other learning experiences) 

• advanced courses in summer or after school 

• correspondence courses 

• specifically designed credit courses; e.g., honours English or honours 
math where content, process and product have been enriched 

• advanced placement courses taken in high school which enable the 
student to acquire a half-course/course credit in the university he or 
she later attends 



GT.166 



• dual enrollment; e.g., may be registered as a Grade 7 student for 
most subjects, but may also be registered in a high school for a 
specific subject 

• early graduation 

• early enrollment in a post-secondary institution 

• radical acceleration (provides students with university entrance 
eligibility two or more years in advance of their chronological peers). 

Some acceleration options cited above may be facilitated through the 
following procedures. 

Telescoping 

Telescoping is reducing the amount of time students take to cover the 
curriculum. Courses often involve overlapping content and skills from 
one grade level to the next. Students who are gifted and talented may 
not need as much time to learn and remember material. An example of 
telescoping is when a student completes Grades 8 and 9 math in one 
year. Telescoping can be used in conjunction with acceleration. 

Compacting 

Compacting is a strategy designed to streamline the amount of time 
students spend on the regular curriculum. This strategy allows students 
to demonstrate what they know, do assignments in those areas where 
work is needed and then be freed to work on other curricular areas. 

Compacting can be used to reduce repetition and buy time for the 
students to work on individual projects of their own choice. 

It may be used to extend work in a given topic. For example, if the area 
to be compacted is mathematics, students will spend less time on 
regular classroom assignments and have more time to work on 
applications or math enrichment activities. 

To compact curriculum: 

• decide what the student needs to know in the area being considered 
for compacting 

• find out what the student knows — by testing, observing, analyzing 
performances 

• provide assignments so the student can master unknown material 

• work with the student in developing an individualized program plan 
that may include: 

- enrichment in the compacted area 

- enrichment in an area of interest 

- an individual study project. 



GT.167 



The Compactor 100 

The process of compacting can assist in the development of IPPs for 
students. The Compactor (see below) provides a systematic plan for 
compacting and streamlining the regular curriculum (Renzulli & Smith, 
1978). It is divided into three major sections: curriculum areas to be 
considered for compacting, procedures for compacting basic material, 
and acceleration and/or enrichment activities. 



.101 



INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING GUIDE' 

The Compactor Pre P ared ^ ^seph s. Renzuin 

r Linda H. Smith 



NAME 



AGE 



SCHOOL 



GRADE 



TEACHER(S). 
PARENT(S)_ 



Individual Conference Dates and Persons 
Participating in Planning of IPP 



CURRICULUM AREAS TO BE 
CONSIDERED FOR COMPACTING — 
Provide a brief description of basic material to 
be covered during this marking period and the 
assessment information or evidence that 
suggests the need for compacting. 



PROCEDURES FOR COMPACTING 
BASIC MATERIAL — Describe activities 
that will be used to guarantee proficiency in 
basic curricular areas. 



ACCELERATION AND/OR ENRICHMENT 
ACTIVITIES — Describe activities that will 
be used to provide advanced-level learning 
experiences in each area of the regular 
curriculum. 



□ 



Check here if additional information 
is recorded on the reverse side 



Copyright © 1978 by Creative Learning Press. Inc., P.O. Box 320, Mansfield Center, CT 
06250 All rights reserved. 



The first column, "curriculum areas to be considered for compacting,'' 
should be considered after a comprehensive profile of the student's 
abilities, interests and learning styles has been prepared. This profile 
assists in providing assessment information or evidence that suggests a 
need for compacting in one or more areas of the curriculum. The first 
column includes the learning objectives for a particular unit of study, 
followed by assessment information including test scores, behavioural 
profiles and past academic records. 



GT.168 



The second column, "procedures for compacting basic material/' involves 
listing the ways in which proficiency of the regular curriculum can be 
documented. This column describes the pre-test vehicles teachers select, 
along with test results. Whenever possible, teachers should make use of 
diagnostic instruments available in the basic skill areas. These 
instruments take the form of pre-tests, end-of-unit tests or summary 
exercises that contain a sampling of major concepts presented in a 
designated unit of instruction. In cases where such tests or diagnostic 
instruments are not readily available, review the main objectives of a 
given unit and construct an instrument using related workbook or 

1 CO 

textbook exercise items. 

The third column, "acceleration and/or enrichment activities," requires 
making basic decisions about subject-matter boundaries within which 
enrichment activities will fall. If, for example, several curriculum units 
in the area of mathematics are compacted, a decision must be made 
regarding whether the time that has been bought will be devoted to 
enrichment or acceleration in this area of the curriculum. Although 
practical and organizational concerns may place certain restrictions on 
enrichment alternatives, the crucial consideration in making decisions 
about advanced-level opportunities should be the interests of 
students. 102 



GT.169 



INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING GUIDE 

The CoiTlDaCtOr Prepared by Joseph S. Renzulli 
P Linda H. Smith 


name Abigail AGE 9 teacher(S) Mrs. Green 

SCHOOL Swallow Hills GRADE 4 PARENT(S) 


Individual Conference Dates and Persons 
Participating in Planning of IPP 




CURRICULUM AREAS TO BE 
CONSIDERED FOR COMPACTING — 
Provide a brief description of basic material to 
be covered during this marking period and the 
assessment information or evidence that 
suggests the need for compacting. 


PROCEDURES FOR COMPACTING 
BASIC MATERIAL — Describe activities 
that will be used to guarantee proficiency in 
basic curricular areas. 


ACCELERATION AND/OR ENRICHMENT 
ACTIVITIES — Describe activities that will 
be used to provide advanced-level learning 
experiences in each area of the regular 
curriculum. 


Novel study: 

• constructing meaning 

• predicting events 

• character development 

• defending opinions 

Abigail has an A to A+ average in 
language arts. She reads 1-2 novels 
per week. Her analysis and discussion 
skills are outstanding. 


• interview Abigail to discuss a novel 
recently read 

• CTBS . . . . 95%ile 

• review response journal entries for 
"Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" 

• tape a small group discussion where 
Abigail served as group leader 


• take excerpts from a novel and 
script them for theatre/dramatic 
performance. Cast the play . . . 
block the stage for each scene . . . 
stage the play. 

OR 

• gather data to write a biography of 
a community leader, a local artist, 
musician. Write the person's story. 



Suggestions for Implementing Curriculum Compacting 103 

• Start the compacting process by targeting a small group of students 
for whom compacting seems especially appropriate. Learning how 
to locate available pretests, identify strengths, modify curriculum, 
and replace with interesting and challenging alternatives takes time 
and effort. Starting with two or three students who obviously require 
the service makes the process easier. 

• Select one content area in which: 

- the targeted student has demonstrated previous mastery or 
curriculum strengths 

- the most resources are available to pretest for prior mastery, and 
enrich and accelerate the content. 

• Try different methods of pretesting or assessment. Ask for 
assistance from other faculty members, aides or volunteers. 

Many different methods can be used to assess previous mastery of 
skills or the potential of students to move through content at a more 
rapid pace. Objective-referenced assessments can be used for all 
students. Alternative assessment techniques (essays, portfolios, 
students' products) can also be used to demonstrate proficiency and 
content expertise. 



GT.170 



Compact by unit, chapter or topic rather than time (marking period 
or quarter). 

Decide how to document compacted material and define proficiency 
based on staff consensus and district policy. 

Either the Compactor or a locally designed alternative form can be 
used to document the compacting process. Various strategies may 
be used to measure and determine what constitutes proficiency in a 
content area. A frequently used strategy for measuring proficiency 
includes the use of unit, chapter and review tests. Other strategies 
include outlining, reading comprehension questions, reinforcement 
dittos, check-up pages, weekly tests with the class, teacher-selected 
problems, co-operative learning and individual work at the board 
with the teacher. Teachers usually identify a specific proficiency 
standard by which to evaluate whether students have mastered the 
regular curriculum. The criteria for determining proficiency tends to 
range from 80-100 per cent. 



• Request help from all available resources in order to create a wide 
range of opportunities and alternatives to replace content that has 
been eliminated through compacting. Teachers primarily use two 
categories of instructional strategies: enrichment and acceleration. 

The following list includes examples of enrichment activities. 



Enrichment St 


rategies 


• Math puzzles, word problems « 


• Creative thinking activities 


• Projects « 


» Practice in research skills 


• Free reading « 


» Reports 


• Computer time/games « 


► Game creation 


• Creative games « 


» Entering games/contests 


• Critical thinking activities « 


* Learning centres 


• Crossword puzzles « 


* Public speaking 


• Individualized kits « 


» Bulletin boards 


• Field trips < 


► Journal keeping 


• More challenging words < 


► Science experiments 


• Research < 


» Mentor-guided investigation 


• Utilization of reference materials 





• Keep trying, reflecting on what has worked and field testing new 
ideas. 

The compacting process becomes easier as it evolves into more than 
just a series of testing and record-keeping exercises. When teachers 
have used compacting for awhile, it becomes an acceptable 



GT.171 



alternative and a new way of thinking about learners and the grade- 
level curriculum. To achieve this kind of success with the process, 
organization and task commitment become crucial. 

See Appendix 47, page GT.275 for a blank compactor form. A 
thorough presentation of compacting with lists of resources and places 
to obtain them is presented in Curriculum Compacting: The Complete 
Guide to Modifying the Regular Curriculum for High Ability Students 
(1992) by S. M. Reis, D. E. Burns & J. S. Renzulli. 

Tiered Assignments 

Tiered assignments are designed to meet the needs of students 
functioning at a range of levels. Students work on the same content, but 
are asked different questions and provided with different activities 
assigned according to ability. 1 4 Tiered assignments can be written by 
teachers using one generative question based on the provincial 
curriculum. 105 Teachers can create tiered assignments by including 
expectations, tasks and expected learner outcomes that can 
accommodate a variety of learning needs and styles. Tiers can then be 
constructed to accommodate students who are gifted and talented. 

The information included in a student profile can help teachers ensure 
that each student's needs are being met within a tier. A student profile 
includes information about the student's academic achievement, 
learning styles and strengths, interests, special abilities and visions, and 
goals for the future. For more information about student profiles, see 
pages GT.63-64. 

In developing tiered assignments, teachers can use Gardner's Multiple 
Intelligences, pages GT.24-27 and/or Bloom's Taxonomy, pages 
GT. 133-1 39 to accommodate individual student needs and strengths 
within each tier. 

Tiered assignments provide students who are gifted and talented with 
choice and the opportunity to: 

• engage in higher-level thinking skills 

• generate ideas 

• reflect on their own cognition 

• engage in activities that are innovative, complex and enriching 

• facilitate an awareness of their cognitive and affective needs 

• pursue areas of interest. 



GT.172 



The following is an example of a tiered assignment. For this 
assignment, students are identified as challenged, intermediate, and 
gifted and talented. These three learner profiles are by no means the 
only tiers that can be created. Tiers should be created based on the 
needs of the individual students. 

Grade Seven 

Subject: Social Studies — People and Their Culture 

Topic B — Cultural Transition: A Case Study of Japan 

The intent of this unit is to help students understand cultural transition. 
Students will study the changes that have occurred in Japanese culture 
in the past century. The major generalization that students will make is 
that cultural transition occurs as a result of internal and external 
influences. 

Issues and Questions for Inquiry 

These focus questions can guide the thinking and discussion that ensue 

from this assignment. 

• How does culture change? 

• To what extent should change within a culture be encouraged? 

• What changes have taken place in Japanese culture? 

• What influences cultures to change? 

• What aspects of traditional Japanese culture have been retained? 

• What impact has contact with other societies had on Japanese 
culture? 

• How do people respond to cultural change? 

• What influences has Japanese culture had on your culture? 

The following tiered assignment is designed to accommodate three 
types of learners: 

• Challenged learners — students who can access the curriculum but 
require modified instruction 

• Intermediate learners — students who are capable of understanding 
and achieving the objectives as set by the provincial curriculum 

• Gifted and talented — students who demonstrate exceptional 
potential and/or performance across wide range of abilities. 

The assignment would then be tiered as follows. 

Generative Question 

What happens to a society when external and internal influences bring 

about change to their economic, political and social principles and 

systems? 



GT.173 



Tier One (challenged learner) 

Together, students and teachers (using the information presented by the 

teacher and in the textbook) will: 

• review the teacher-directed information relating to Japan and its 
culture in the past century 

• review and list together (on the board) what influences have brought 
about change to the Japanese culture 

• brainstorm together what positives, negatives and interesting facts 
have emerged as a result of the change. 

Product 

Students are required to copy the list of influences and list the positives, 

negatives and interesting facts that come from the brainstorming 

sessions. 

Tier Two (intermediate learner) 

Using information presented by the teacher, information in the 
textbook, as well as information they acquire from other sources 
(Internet, other textbooks, interviews, etc.), students create a list of the 
positives, negatives and interesting factors related to cultural change 
within Japanese society. 

Product (Student's Choice) 

• collage 

• written submission 

• oral presentation. 

Tier Three (gifted and talented) 

Based on the knowledge and understanding students have about the 

changing nature of Japanese culture, they will debate the following 

resolution: 

"That cultural change in Japanese society is a desirable 
consequence." 

Because these students require an understanding of debating, this unit 
might be interdisciplinary with debating skills taught by the language 
arts teacher. 

Product 

Students will debate the issue to the entire class. 

Guidelines for Developing Unit-based Curricula 

A unit is a comprehensive delineation of activities related to a specific 
subject, topic or theme indicating the breadth of learning opportunities 
and the sequential development of learning (Kaplan, 1 974). The 
emphasis in a unit approach is on providing systematic, comprehensive, 
pre-planned programming. 



GT.174 



The unit approach presents the fundamental concepts of the discipline 
in a manner appropriate to the given population, permitting interaction 
with the concepts at increasing levels of complexity and sophistication 
as the student matures. The unit approach provides the benefits of 
continuity, flexibility, and adaptability to student interests, learning 
styles and abilities. 

General Considerations 

• Choices are included, considering the variety of students' interests, 
learning styles and abilities. 

• Students are encouraged to become more autonomous learners. 

• Material is unbiased, non-sexist, non-racist and non-elitist. 

• One or more models and/or strategies is employed to give structure 
to overall enrichment design; e.g., 

Bloom's taxonomy 
Creative problem solving 
Creative thinking 
Self-directed learning. 



• 



• 



Opportunities are provided for development of student's 
self-awareness and self-concept. 

* 

Respect for individuality is emphasized, and originality and non- 
conformity are encouraged. 



Specific Considerations 

The three basic components of a unit approach to planning follow. 

Content: 

Content refers to the material to be taught or the knowledge that is 
constructed in a learning experience. The mandated curriculum 
identifies a body of information that must be considered in each 
discipline. Prior to any formal teaching, some gifted students are able 
to demonstrate mastery of certain aspects of prescribed content. 
Teachers should select those knowledge components that must be 
introduced or further reinforced. 

Frequently, the mandated curriculum is enhanced through additional 
material stemming from student interests. 

Regardless of the source, content encompasses: 

• facts 

• concepts (categories for objects and events) 



GT.175 



• principles (laws that describe some regularity in the external events 
occurring in the natural world) 

• values (concepts that involve a person's feelings) 

• attitudes (expression of feelings or desires about some person, place 
or object). 

In unit design: 

• content presented is challenging and pertains to a topic of interest, an 
issue or theme 

• content from the mandated curriculum is reinforced and extended 

• content may be multidisciplinary 

• content from the mandated curriculum may be compacted on the 
basis of student needs 

• content vocabulary is chosen to promote a higher level of language 
development, allowing students to play with words. 

Process 

Process encompasses the repertoire of skills that students are expected 
to acquire as they engage in the curriculum. Programs for the gifted 
emphasize demonstrated mastery of basic skills and competency in 
divergent productive thinking operations. Other skills to be introduced 
include research and information retrieval strategies, time management 
skills, life skills and skills that facilitate the use of technology. 

In unit design: 

• basic skills are reinforced and extended 

• open-minded, divergent thinking processes are emphasized; e.g., 
creative thinking, critical thinking, higher-level questioning 

• principal emphasis is on process without neglect of acquisition of 
background information. 

Product 

Product refers to the evidence that a student presents to show that 
understandings are learned and skills acquired. The product may take 
various formats; e.g., written, oral or visual. See pages GT.59-62 for 
more information on products. 

In unit design: 

• the product enables students to respond to the topic in a variety of 
formats. 

Steps in Planning a Unit 

The following flowchart illustrates the eight steps in a unit approach to 
planning. 



GT.176 



Steps in Planning a Unit 




Choose 
a theme 



Choose a broad-based topic, issue or overarching theme which will 
incorporate many concepts, generalizations, principles and theories. Be 
aware of how the chosen topic fits into the tapestry of the larger program. 
How will it capture the imagination and interest of students? 




List 

learning 

outcomes 



Check with the Alberta programs of study to ensure that the prescribed 
general and specific outcomes are included. Extend the list by adding to the 
outcomes the concepts that are more complex and skills which require higher- 
order levels of thinking. 




1 List 
disciplines/ 
|0 strands 



Which subjects will be woven into the fabric of the unit? Integration of 
language arts, science, math, music . . . 




1 Brainstorm 
instructional 
D activities 



Develop a web of activities to be undertaken. Include students in 

brainstorming for ideas. Invite colleagues to contribute their ideas to the 

web. 

• Do the activities reflect emphases on higher-level thinking, creative skills, 
abstract concepts, sophisticated end products? 
- If the answer is Yes. go to STEP 5. 

If the answer is No. enrich the quality of the activities to include 
convergent and divergent thinking involvements; e.g., review Bloom's 
taxonomy, or creative thinking strategies, or menu of possible end 
products (see page GT.61) 




Identify 
resources 



Collaborate/conference with the teacher-librarian to identify relevant 
resources, both print and non-print. Are there community-based resources 
that should be accessed? 




Sequence 
activities 



Decide how the activities should be sequenced to facilitate the efficient, 
effective acquisition of skills and concepts. 




Outline 

evaluation 

strategies 



Review 
considerations 



How will the unit be evaluated? Consider teacher, peer, self and expert 
evaluation of the various components. How will items for student portfolios 
be selected? 



Review general considerations and specific considerations in developing unit- 
based curricula. Have fun! 



GT.177 



Sample Unit Plan 




STEP ■ J 1 Choose 
a theme 



Broad-based theme: Quality of Life (Grade 9 Social Studies) 

Issue: Young Offenders' Act 

Concept: Knowledge and understanding of the act as printed 

Generalizations: Influence of Young Offenders' Act on society at large; 

e.g., parents, young people, law enforcement agencies, etc. 




1 List 
learning 
outcomes 







List 

disciplines/ 

strands 



J Brainstorm 
instructional 
activities 



Identify 
resources 



Sequence 
activities 



Outline 

evaluation 

strategies 



Review 
considerations 



Students will write a position paper on the YOA and its contribution/ 

implications for the quality of life 

Students will engage in higher-level thinking skills . . . analysis, synthesis, 

evaluation 

Students will communicate what they have learned through written and oral 

modes. 

Social Studies — Topic C Canada Responding to Change Concept: quality of 

life 

Language arts 

Science 

Information retrieval . . . print and non-print 
Proposal writing 

Editing, proof-reading, polishing for preparation 
Reviewing and introducing questioning strategies 
Debating skills 

Guest speakers 

The Young Offenders' Act 

Newspaper, journal articles 

Internet 

Overview of concept, "quality of life" (brainstorming) 

Perspectives on the Young Offenders ' Act (guest speakers, newspaper articles, 

editorials, etc.) 

Write proposals as to how the information gathered will be organized to funnel 

into a position paper 

Describe format that the final presentation will take; e.g., will the position paper 

simply be submitted? Presented orally? Simulation? 

Debate on issue 

Teacher observation throughout; e.g., task commitment, innovative ideas, 
effective use of resources, evidence of autonomous learning 
Self-evaluation; e.g., time management, goal achievement 
Peer evaluation; e.g., classmates in judge roles during debate 
Teacher grading of final product 

Topic was relevant, interesting 

Served to enrich, extend the prescriptive curriculum 



GT.178 





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Mentorships 

The term "mentor" does not imply an internship, apprenticeship or 
casual hit-or-miss relationship in which the student simply spends time 
in the presence of an adult and information is transmitted (Boston, 
1 976). A mentorship is a dynamic shared relationship in which values, 
attitudes, passions and traditions are passed from one person to another 
and internalized (Boston, 1976). 

Five characteristics distinguish mentoring from other relationships: 106 

• mutual passion for a specific area of interest 

• a match of teaching and learning styles 

• lifelong trust 

• mutual perceptions of symmetry — that is, a movement toward 
equality in the relationship as the student advances in knowledge and 
skill 

• a sharing of lifestyle as the novice gradually adopts patterns of the 
mentor. 



A successful mentorship program is appropriate for students at all grade 
levels and is an ideal vehicle to serve the differentiated needs of the 
gifted because it facilitates the mutual exchange of knowledge in a 
learning partnership (Harper, 1988). 

This section focuses on mentoring as one of the most effective ways to 
help gifted students actualize their potentials. The decision to set up 
such arrangements should be made by teachers and parents. 

Guidelines for Mentorships 

The following guidelines may be useful to parents and educators who 
wish to explore mentor relationships for gifted students. 107 

• Identify what (not whom) a student needs. The student may want to 
learn a particular skill or subject, or want someone to offer help in 
trying out a whole new lifestyle. 

• Discuss with the student whether he or she really wants a mentor. 
Some might just want a pal, advisor or exposure to a career field, 
rather than a mentor relationship that entails close, prolonged contact 
and personal growth. 

• Identify a few mentor candidates. To identify mentor candidates, use 
your own circle of friends and their contacts, parents of other gifted 
students, local schools, local universities, businesses and agencies, 
professional associations, and local arts groups. If access to local 
resources is limited, long distance mentors are an option. Internet 
web sites can be a rich source of potential mentors. For example, 



GT.179 



Writers in Electronic Residence, or WIER (at wierayorku.ca) is a 
program that allows public school students across Canada to have 
their writing evaluated by prominent Canadian authors through 
computer conferencing. 

• Interview the mentors. Find out whether their style of teaching is 
compatible with the student's learning style, and whether they are 
excited about their work and want to share their skills. Be explicit 
about the student's abilities and needs, and about the potential 
benefits the mentor might derive from working with the young 
person. 

• Match the mentor with the student's talent/interest area. The 
compatibility of the mentor and student is an important factor in the 
success of the mentorship. Interest surveys, biographical data, and 
teaching and learning-style inventories can be helpful in finding 
partners. Mentor and student need to meet and chat informally 
before the final decision is made. A visit to the mentor's place of 

ins 

work can also be helpful. 

• Prepare the student for the mentorship. Make sure the student 
understands the purpose of the relationship, its benefits and 
limitations, and the rights and responsibilities that go along with it. 
Make sure you understand these as well. Make sure agreements 
concerning roles are written down for mentor, students, teacher and 
parent. 

• Monitor the mentor relationship. If, after giving the mentorship a 
fair chance, you feel that the student is not identifying with the 
mentor, that self-esteem and self-confidence are not being fostered, 
that common goals are not developing, or that expectations on either 
side are unrealistic, it might be wise to renegotiate the experience 
with the student and the mentor. In extreme cases, seek a new 
mentor. 

Questions to Ask Students 

• Does the student want a mentor or does the student simply want 
enrichment in the form of exposure to a particular subject or career 
field? 

• What type of mentor does the student need? 

• Is the student prepared to spend a significant amount of time with the 
mentor? 

• Does the student understand the purpose, benefits and limitations to 
the mentor relationship? 



GT.180 



And the more people who 

engage in intensive talent 

development, the greater are 

the possibilities for personal 

self-actualization and 

improvement of the human 

condition. 

Arnold & 

Subotnik, 1995, 

pp. 122-123 



Mentors model what students 
can become by showing the 
lifestyles, modes of thinking, 

professional practices, costs, 
and advantages associated 

with high-level achievement in 
a particular domain. 

Arnold & 

Subotnik, 1995, 

p. 120 



Questions to Ask Mentors 

Does the mentor understand and like working with gifted students? 

Is the mentor's teaching style compatible with the student's learning 

style? 

Is the mentor willing to be a real role model, sharing the excitement 

and joy of learning? 

Is the mentor optimistic, with a sense of tomorrow? 

Responsibilities 
Student Responsibilities 

To be willing to sign a contract with their mentor regarding his or 

her involvement. 

To be involved for a pre-established period and follow the project 

through to completion. 

To meet with the mentor at the agreed upon times unless there is a 

prearranged change. 

To define a specific plan of study with the mentor. 

To communicate with the teacher at periods (either in written form 

or verbally), outlining activities or plans. 

To immediately communicate any difficulty encountered with the 

mentorship. 

To make a presentation of the project upon completion of the 

mentorship. 

To complete an evaluation, if requested, of the program following 

the mentorship. 

Teacher Responsibilities 

To identify students based on student interest, educational need, and 

the ability to participate in and benefit from the process. 

To help in resolving problems as needed. 

To notify the student of any changes in the student's school 

performance which would necessitate stopping the mentorship. 

To receive the student's final presentation, evaluate the educational 

value of the experience and document such on the student's file. 



Parent Responsibilities 

To critically evaluate their children's potential to benefit from a 

mentoring experience. 

To actively support their children and the mentors in their 

mentorship relationships. 

To allow their children to sign contracts with their mentors. 

To ensure their children follow through with their commitments. 

To have the children available for all agreed upon meeting times and 

to notify the mentors in advance of any inability to do so. 

To arrange any transportation during the course of the mentorship. 



GT.181 



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Mentor Responsibilities 

• To develop a relationship with the student where 
both are thinking, learning and exchanging. 

• To help the student explore a field of interest and to 
aid in developing a realistic perspective of that field 
through planned, guided experiences. 

• To submit to a screening process, realizing that he 
or she may not be chosen as a mentor for a variety 
of reasons. 

• To be willing to sign a contract with the student 
after meeting with the student and parents. See 
Appendix 48, page GT.276. 

• To designate a specific amount of time to be devoted 
to the mentorship and to notify the student of any 
changes of arrangements agreed upon at the initial 
meeting. 

• To define, with the student, a specific project or 
plan of study which allows the student to develop 
an end product. 

• To guide the student in independent study. 

• To provide and/or suggest related reading materials, field trips or 
visits giving specific instruction where necessary and outlining costs 
or equipment required. 

• To consider altering the project if problems or concerns arise. 

• To communicate with the teacher at periods during the mentorship 
(either verbally or in written form), to advise of activities and plans. 

• To complete an evaluation, if required, of the program following the 
mentorship period. 

Things to Keep in Mind When Setting Up Mentorships 109 

Whether setting up a mentoring program or a single mentorship, 
attention to several critical factors can mitigate or eliminate later 
difficulties. 

• Individuals responsible for establishing mentorships must determine 
how many relationships can effectively be managed over a given 
period of time. 

• The developmental level of the student is a major consideration. 
Some elementary students are ready for a mentorship; some high 
school students are not. 

• Parental permission is an important consideration for any deviation 
from the normal school routine. This should be gathered in face-to- 
face contact, along with the return of a signed form. 



GT.182 



• 



• 



Some mentors, though skilled experts in their fields, may be unable 
or unwilling to handle the critical developmental needs of the 
student. This is as important for adolescents as for elementary-age 
children. Success of a mentorship often depends upon attention to 
developmental needs. Sometimes, double mentoring, where a 
second mentor (often a teacher) helps the student in areas important 
to both his or her personal growth and to the success of the 
mentorship, is advisable. There are several areas in which the 
second mentor could be particularly effective, including the 
development of skills for communicating with adults (especially 
those in power positions), time management, personal reflection on 
the mentorship and provision of opportunities for students to interact 
with peers engaged in mentorships (Clasen & Hanson, 1987). 

Mentors must be valued and supported. Their contributions should 
receive formal recognition from the school. The mentor may need 
support in learning how to cope with the student in terms of age, 
cultural background, or attitude and value differences. 

Parents or significant family members may feel threatened by the 
role of the mentor. As much as possible, they should share in the 
process by being kept informed, attending occasional meetings, and 
visiting the mentor and student at mutually agreed-on times. 

• Sometimes a mentorship will not work. This may be due to 
unexpected events or life changes, or because one or both of the 
partners find the relationship incompatible. This possibility should 
be dealt with before the mentorship begins. Mentor and student need 
to know that they are expected to work at the relationship and do all 
they can to make it succeed, but they also need assurance that they 
are free to dissolve the mentorship if necessary. In such a case, both 
should be able to leave the mentorship without assigning blame, but 
should be able to evaluate what happened. 

Sources to Consult for Potential Mentor Contacts 

Often teachers know people in their sphere of friends and acquaintances 
who can be contacted to serve as mentors to students requiring this kind 
of experience. In some instances, the parent body of the school has 
individuals willing and able to share specific expertise. If neither of 
these sources generate an appropriate connection, teachers may wish to 
consult the yellow pages of their local phone directory under the 
heading, Associations, Societies and Foundations. 



GT.183 



Programming Options 

Junior Great Books Program 

[http://www.greatbooks.org/index.html] 

The Junior Great Books Program is a qualitatively different approach to 
the teaching of literature that is well-suited to gifted readers. The 
materials, which include selections from outstanding literary works, are 
appropriate for Grades 2-12. Teachers using the program are expected 
to enroll in training sessions for leaders of discussion groups. 

According the Junior Great Books system, there are three types of 
questions that a person can ask about a story: factual, evaluative and 
interpretive. Factual questions can be answered directly from the text. 
Evaluative questions require readers to draw on their experiences. 
Interpretive questions, used most often in Junior Great Books, draw on 
information from the story and readers' intuitive abilities. For gifted 
students, the program provides opportunities to think divergently and 
critically, and engage in sophisticated discussions with their intellectual 
peers. 

For more information on the Junior Great Books Program, teachers can 
access http://www.greatbooks.org/index.html. 

Odyssey of the Mind 

[http://www.odyssey.org/odyssey/homepage.html] 

The Odyssey of the Mind program promotes divergent thinking in 
students from kindergarten through college. This program offers students 
a unique opportunity to participate in challenging and motivating 
activities both inside and outside the regular classroom curriculum. 
Students learn to work with others as a team. They develop 
self-confidence by creating solutions to problems provided by the 
program, evaluating their ideas and making final decisions. They develop 
their creative skills through problem solving and independent thinking. 

To participate in the Odyssey of the Mind program, a school must 
become a member of the OM Association. For further information 
contact Odyssey of the Mind, P.O. Box 547, Glasboro, New Jersey, 
08028, USA. 

Future Problem Solving Program (FPSP) 

[http://frostbyte.com/fpsp/toc.html] 

The Future Problem Solving Program draws winning teams of students 
from around the world to compete with one another in solving the 
problems of the future. 



GT.184 



Inspiring and motivating, the educational materials help students learn 
how to think (not what to think), assisting them in: 

• thinking more creatively and enthusiastically 

• developing an interactive interest in the future 

• improving oral and written communication skills 

• solving difficult problems using a six-step process 

• working co-operatively with their teammates 

• learning about complex societal issues 

• developing important research skills 

• thinking critically and analytically. 

The FPSP aids discovery and development in creative problem-solving 
skills. The program works effectively and simply. Four-member teams 
learn and utilize the FPSP six-step process supported by a FPSP coach. 
The six-step foundation to building dynamic, creative thinking 
processes includes: 

• brainstorming topic-related problems 

• identifying an underlying problem 

• brainstorming potential solutions to the underlying problem 

• developing criteria to judge solutions 

• evaluating all solutions to determine the best 

• describing the best solution to develop an action plan. 

Applying the six steps to three annually determined problem topics, 
student teams write and mail possible solutions at school-year intervals 
to FPSP evaluators who provide valuable feedback. Receptive to 
varying skill levels, FPSP offers competitive and non-competitive 
programs. 

The International Baccalaureate Program (IB) 

The International Baccalaureate program is currently offered in 528 
participating schools in 78 countries, and in three official languages 
(English, French and Spanish). It has been adopted by North American 
high schools as an enrichment program for highly motivated academic 
students. There are 123 Canadian schools in eight provinces (including 
Alberta) teaching the IB curricula. 

The focus of the IB program is to expand students' thinking beyond 
provincial and national ideologies, while providing a strong foundation 
in the knowledge and skills of the subjects taught. In IB courses, 
students learn how and why, as well as what. Students increase their 
abilities to assimilate information, analyze data and problem solve, and 
learn how to manage their resources of time and effort. Having taken 



GT.185 



the IB program courses, students are better prepared for the rigour of 
university/college life. They often perform better on regular high school 
exams and may get advanced placement to universities or colleges. 

Most universities in North America and many throughout the world 
recognize the IB program and grant university entrance based on 
students' performances on the IB exams. Many universities allow 
advanced placement or credit on some level courses. However, 
universities do not have a common recognition policy and students must 
carefully investigate degree requirements of the post-secondary 
institutions they wish to attend. 

The IB curriculum provides a rigorous two-year pre-university course of 
study leading to examinations that meet the needs of highly motivated 
and academically oriented students. It develops the intellectual, social 
and critical perspectives necessary in the adult world. In content, the IB 
curriculum is a deliberate compromise between the preference for 
specialization in some countries and the emphasis on breadth preferred 
in others. The intent is that students learn how to learn, how to analyze, 
how to reach considered conclusions about people, their languages and 
literature, their ways in society and the scientific forces of the 
environment. 

A full candidate must take all the courses covered in the sequence for 
the six courses required. To receive a full certificate, students must 
write all the corresponding exams associated with these courses. A 
partial candidate must do at least two courses and must write the 
corresponding exams associated with these courses. 

IB courses include the curriculum content mandated by Alberta 
Education and students are required to write the Alberta Diploma 
Exams. 

Advanced Placement Program (AP) 

The Advanced Placement program is a challenging academic program 
which provides an opportunity for bright, motivated high school students 
to study university-level material, demonstrate mastery of course material 
by taking an AP exam, and in some cases, gain credit, placement or both 
at a college or university of their choice. Almost all universities and 
colleges in the United States and Canada, and many in Europe, take part 
in the AP program. Because universities do not have a common 
recognition policy, students must carefully investigate degree 
requirements of the post-secondary institutions they wish to attend. 



GT.186 



To be successful in this rigorous program, students must exhibit certain 
characteristics. They should have demonstrated intellectual curiosity 
and commitment to scholarship. Ideally, they should also show a wide 
interest in the world of ideas and events, and be involved in some 
extra-curricular or co-curricular activities. Fundamentally, they must 
excel academically and be highly self-motivated. For particularly 
self-directed students, an AP program in the form of supervised 
independent study is a valid option. 

Advanced Placement examinations are not written until the Grade 12 
year, however, preparatory courses are offered in Grades 1 and 1 1 . AP 
courses and exams are offered in 18 subject areas. Although AP exams 
are a significant part of the AP program, they are not the only 
component. Students can benefit from taking AP courses by: learning 
a subject in greater depth, developing skills that are critically important 
to successful post-secondary study, and demonstrating to universities 
their willingness to undertake a challenging course. 

The AP program offers several Advanced Placement Scholar Awards to 
recognize high school students who have demonstrated college-level 
achievement through AP courses and exams. Student achievement is 
acknowledged on high school transcripts. 

AP courses include the curriculum content mandated by Alberta 
Education and students are required to write the Alberta Diploma 
Exams. 

Information about the AP program is available through College Board 
Online (CBO) on the Internet at [http://www.collegeboard.org]. 



GT.187 



We live in a universe that is 

alive, vibrant, and 

constantly evolving. . . . 

Just as the earth is [in] 

constant motion and 

transformation, so are we. 

Take your place in the 

universal dance, the 

universal rhythm. Allow 

change to happen. . . . 

Sometimes change comes 

in one smashing moment 

like a volcanic eruption. 

Other times it happens 

more slowly, the way the 

winds and rain sculpt 

bhdges out of canyons. 



Beattie, 1996, 
pp. 118-119 



SECTION 6: POST-MODERNISM 
AND GIFTED EDUCATION 



This section includes an overview of post-modern theory, its impact 
on current educational practice and its interface possibilities for 
developing curricula for students who are gifted. 



A Transformation in Worldview 

Post-modernism is a recreative process. It questions traditional 
assumptions, unsettles static foundations and thrives on possibilities. 
The following chart illustrates the shift in thought between the 
traditional and the transformative world view of theory underlying 
teaching and learning. 



Traditional Worldview 


Transformative Worldview 


• Depends on the Newtonian 


• Recognizes the inherent chaos. 


model of a stable, fixed, ordered 


complexity and indeterminacy 


universe 


of the natural world 


• Views knowledge as static, 


• Views knowledge as dynamic, 


grounded in rational, scientific 


recognizing rapid changes in 


thought 


information, and questioning 




conclusions based on objective, 




scientific certainty 


• Assumes that language has a 


• Recognizes language as an 


fixed, universal meaning 


open, multi-voiced, interpretive 




field of play, in which words 




have multiple meanings 


• A closed system: 


• An open-ended, flexible system: 


operates in rigid compartments 


strict categories and 


and focuses on closure 


compartments are blurred 



The post-modern worldview: 

• thrives on the complexity, spontaneity and indeterminance of the 
natural world 

• acknowledges both chaos and order as fundamental threads within 
this system 

• trusts that increasingly complex patterns emerge out of the 
seeming disorder. 



GT.188 



. . . if we are truly going to 

create learning 

communities for the 21 s ' 

century, we must look 

differently at our 

classrooms, our schools, 

and our work. We must 

view them as dynamic, 

adaptive, self-organizing 

systems, not only capable 

but inherently designed to 

renew themselves and to 

grow and change . . . 

Marshall, 1995, 
p. 14 



The Changing Face of Education 

Post-modernism initiates change within the field of education. It is 
not a destructive process nor a new, radical ideology. Rather, a post- 
modern vision of education becomes a way of: 

• naming the natural, creative flow of classroom interaction 

• nurturing the mutual reciprocity in the student-teacher relationship 

• valuing a curriculum based on collaboration and negotiation. 

Post-modernism is already at work in dynamic classrooms where 
students are actively engaged in inquiry. Post-modern practice is 
exemplified by teachers who: 

• involve students in the collaborative planning process 

• build in opportunities for student choice 

• honour individual students" unique voices and visions 

• expose the multiple layers of a concept and resist the impulse to 
impose a fixed, universal meaning 

• act as mediators in students' learning, enabling students to make 
sense of their experiences, make connections and integrate the new 
with the known. 

The Four R's of Curriculum Planning 

The following model for curriculum planning (Doll, 1993) emerges 
from educational theory focused on creating open, dynamic 
classrooms of the future. It also incorporates many key ideas and 
assumptions about curriculum theory for students who are gifted. 

• Richness 

A rich curriculum is: 

- open to many layers of interpretation 

- focused on broad-based issues and themes 

- multi-disciplinary 

- filled with ambiguity and possibility 

- inclusive of diverse perspectives. 

A rich curriculum generates multiple paths of inquiry and 
discovery. It has many connections to other disciplines and ideas. 
And, it is open enough to inspire learners to engage in meaningful 
dialogue about the concepts pursued. 



GT.189 



Teacher's Role 

- choose broad-based unit topics which are: 

• accessible 

• central to a subject or discipline 

• easily connected to personal context, other subjects and wider, 
global perspectives 

- provide adequate space for student choice within unit 

- help students deal with stable as well as complex, tenuous 
interpretations. 

• Recursion 

Recursion refers to the process of revisiting a concept, text, idea, 
topic, assumption or expectation. A curriculum that facilitates 
recursion thrives on constant, active reflection. The recursive 
process enables students to: 

- question and reconceptualize their initial ideas and 
understandings in light of new, additional or contradictory 
information 

- make connections between ideas 

- develop additional layers of meaning 

- deepen their understanding of a concept 

- chart their own growing, evolving, understanding. 

Teacher's Role 

- Model the recursive process by revisiting a particular topic, text, 
or concept at various points within the unit, year, across 
disciplines or across grades. 

- Allow space for interaction and dialogue between students, 
teachers and texts. 

- Ask students questions which help them to look at old answers 
in a new way and ensure that students begin to ask these 
questions of themselves. 

- Set up learning tasks, activities and projects which necessitate 
revisiting and revising at various points in the unit or year. 

• Relations 

A relational curriculum: 

- honours multiple voices and interpretations 

- allows main texts, ideas and concepts to be thrown into every 
combination possible 

- considers central concepts from as many points of view and 
perspectives as possible. 



GT.190 



Teacher's Role 

- Resist the tendency to cover a vast amount of content in a short 
amount of time. 

- Play with ideas and concepts. 

- Provide time for students to wonder, imagine, consider the 
possibilities and possible equations. 

• Rigour 

The rigourous component of a curriculum is perhaps the most 
crucial. Rigour is: 

- the core that structures the possibilities and problems, and 
connects the diverse paths of discovery 

- the loose order or pattern underlying the divergent ideas and 
concepts 

- what enables coherence to emerge from chaos and complexity 

- students' diligent struggles to work through the problems and 
the discrepancies 

- students' absolute engagement with the material, concepts and 
most importantly, possibilities 

- what allows for richness. 

Teacher's Role 

- Develop central unit topics which guide, stabilize and loosely 
structure student inquiry and discovery. 

- Emphasize connections within a student's personal learning 
path. 

- Teach and utilize mind-mapping as a strategy to organize units, 
visualize connections within a topic, and create coherence and 
unity within a vast unit of study. 

Within the context of curriculum planning, differentiation is essential 
in challenging gifted students and transforming classrooms into 
spaces which embrace change, diversity and complexity. 



GT.191 



Principles for Building Curriculum Differentiation 



no 



Differentiated curriculum should focus on: 


Differentiated curricular experiences 
should provide students with: 


Complex content: elaborate, in-depth study of 
major ideas, problems and themes that integrate 
knowledge with and across systems of thought 


Opportunities to: 

• explore conflicting ideas and theories of the 
past, present and future 

• apply knowledge to multiple levels of 
understanding and varied situations 

• acquire and apply basic learnings from the 
disciplines 

• explore varied belief systems and value 
constructs 

• explore and understand unresolved issues and 
problems within an area of study 

• apply knowledge derived from one discipline 
to new areas of study and investigation 


Development and application of productive 
thinking skills: encouraging students to 
reconceptualize existing knowledge or generate 
new knowledge 


Opportunities to: 

• acquire knowledge and develop innovative 
skills in keeping with criteria set by people 
with meaningful perspectives on the area of 
study 

• develop skills into communication forms 
appropriate to varied audiences 


Exploration of constantly changing world of 
knowledge and information 


Opportunities to: 

• explore the frontiers of knowledge 

• acquire varied responses to issues and 
problems without relinquishing or negating 
one's own response except on the basis of 
evidence 

• develop methods and skills of consensus, 
compromise and concession for the 
reconciliation of differences 

• understand the role perception plays in the 
analysis and interpretation of issues, and how a 
personal point of view is developed 



GT.192 



Selection and use of appropriate 
and specialized resources 


Opportunities to: 

• identify and use multi-leveled and varied 
resources appropriate to study 

• comprehend concepts of data reliability and 
validity, and distinctions between primary, 
secondary and tertiary data 

• acquire and use specific techniques of 
investigation that are unique to various 
disciplines 

• develop skills and understandings needed to 
use advanced information systems technology 

• broaden insights into the nature of an 
appropriate learning environment and that the 
entire world offers possibilities for learning 

• develop the procedures and skills needed to 
identify and employ the services of experts as 
resources for study 


Promotion of self-initiated and self-directed 
learning and growth 


Opportunities to: 

• develop problem identification skills and 
explore problems independently 

• understand the self as learner, developing 
insights into strengths, weaknesses, interests, 
styles and preferences 

• explore capacities and preferences for group as 
well as individual tasks 


Development of self-understanding and the 
understanding of one's relationship to persons, 
social institutions, nature and culture 


Opportunities to: 

• develop a personal philosophy of life 

• participate in and understand appropriate roles 
of leader and followers 

• nurture an appreciation of how and what one 
can contribute to disciplines, people and 
situations 


Evaluations that are conducted in accordance 
with principles of differentiation: stress higher- 
level thinking skills, creativity and excellence in 
performance and products 


Opportunities to: 

• develop an awareness of criteria appropriate to 
the individual and the nature of the learning 
experience 

• develop skills necessary for critiquing one's 
own performances and products, and those of 
peers 

• accept and use critical feedback in a productive 
manner 



GT.193 



Post-modern Connections to Gifted Education 

The concepts and practices advocated in post-modern educational 
theory are synonymous with learning models and philosophies central 
to the evolving field of gifted education. Inquiry-based, process- 
oriented, student-directed learning is at the heart of both 
post-modernism and emerging models for teaching high-potential 
students. 

The following chart highlights the similarities of the characteristics of 
students who are gifted and the premises underlying post-modern 
theory. 





CHARACTERISTICS 




Gifted Learners 




Post-Modern Theory 


• 


are inquisitive and curious 


• 


question old missions and 
truths 


• 


are makers of meaning 


• 


construct meaning 


• 


welcome new concepts 


• 


welcome change and chaos 


• 


hold multiple perspectives, 


• 


encompass multiple and 




solutions and explanations 




complex structures 


• 


are diverse individuals 


• 


embrace diversity 


• 


need relevant and purposeful 


• 


provide transformative 




learning 




learning 


• 


are global thinkers 


• 


open the conversation to big 
issues 



Practices such as the following guide post-modern pedagogy and 
gifted education: 

• curriculum compacting 

• differentiation 

• enrichment 

• tiered assignments 

• multiple, varied instructional paths 

• rich opportunities for individualization and personal extension 

• authentic assessment 

• collaborative evaluation. 



GT.194 



From the teacher's end, it 
boils down to whether or 
not she . . . has the gift or 

the wisdom to listen to 

another; the ability to draw 

out and preserve that 

other's line of thought. 

Ashton-Warner, 
1986, p. 58 



Teachers as Mediators 

Teachers assume the role of mediator in the learning process. The 
traditional telling-listening relationship between teacher and student is 
replaced by one that is more complex and interactive. Students' own 
efforts to understand are the centre of education. Attentiveness to 
students' unique learning processes is essential in order for teachers to 
know when to support and when to challenge students. Rather than 
focussing strictly on content delivery, teachers must: 

• develop a substantial knowledge base about learning and 
development in order to recognize what students are thinking and 
what they are ready to learn 

• be attentive to students' spontaneous transformations in thought 
and understanding to take advantage of reactions and seize 
teachable moments 

• plan collaboratively with students, gaining a sense of students' 
needs, difficulties, interest and areas requiring growth or extension 

• set up active learning tasks that engage students in personally 
relevant, purposeful work 

• spend substantial time moving through the classroom to work with 
individuals and small groups 

• ask students to reflect on their choices, actions and learning; to 
explain what they did; to share their methodologies and question 
their assumptions 

• guide students to new tasks or resources when they have mastered 
a concept, are ready to extend themselves or desire to change 
direction in their path of discovery. 

Essentially, teachers must provide learning experiences at two levels: 

• students should be independently practising something they have 
learned 

• students should be engaged in discovery learning which challenges 
them to go beyond attained developmental levels. 

Learning is a constant process of integrating new knowledge with 
what is already known. 



GT.195 



As teachers talk about their 
work and "name" their 

experiences, they learn 
about what they know and 

what they believe. They 
also learn what they do not 

know. Such knowledge 

empowers the individual by 

providing a source for 

action that is generated 

from within rather than 
imposed from without. . . . 
Teachers who know in this 

way can act with intent; 

they are empowered to 

draw from the center of 
their own knowing and act 

as critics and creators of 
their world . . . People who 

are empowered — 

teachers in this case — are 

those who are able to act in 

accordance with what they 

know and believe 

Richert, 1992, 
pp. 196-197 



Reflective Teachers 

The goal of constant transformation should guide not only student 
learning but teacher learning as well. This requires that educators 
contemplate and question their pedagogical assumptions. A teacher's 
process of self-inquiry and discovery can be guided by the following 
questions. 

• Action: What is my concern in my practice? Decide on an issue 
in your own teaching that you would like to improve or better 
understand. 

• Reflections: What values underlie this issue? Connect your 
pedagogical concerns to personal, educational philosophies and 
beliefs, as well as to the needs of your students. 

• Revision: What am I going to do about it? Map out relevant 
change you could make in your classroom and teaching. 

• Collaboration: How might I best involve my students in this 
project? Encourage student feedback to ensure that your 
transformative efforts are meeting their needs and facilitating their 
own learning transformations. Student feedback enables you to see 
the effects of your changes and helps you confront your 
assumptions. 



Reflective Students 

Reflecting on one's ideas, thoughts, actions and practices brings about 
real understanding and transformative learning. Guiding students to 
self-understanding and self-knowledge should be at the centre of 
teaching and learning. It is essential for students to know themselves 
as learners not only within the classroom, but also as active creators 
of meaning in the outside world. To facilitate this, teachers should 
emphasize questioning, interpreting and exploring. 

Transformative teaching and learning hinges on teachers and students 
subscribing to the following beliefs and values. 

• Learners are active creators of meaning. 

• Learning is subjective: 

- previous understanding becomes the foundation for learning; 
new knowledge is integrated into existing cognitive structures 

- memory is deeply dependent on what the learner already knows; 
prior knowledge and personal context are central in all 
investigations of meaning. 



GT.196 



Internal reorganization occurs as a learner encounters new 
information. Learning is recognized as a chaotic, disorderly 
process which thrives on complexity. 

Deep understanding involves making connections between 
concepts, seeing relationships among ideas; content is personally 
relevant. 

Instruction focuses on internal processes. 

Learning is transformative: learners move gradually toward 
greater, deeper understanding, but it is a repetitive process and 
understanding is constantly evolving. 

Learning is student-centred: learners are self-directed, autonomous 
and independent. 

Student-teacher relationship is based on mutual respect and 
democracy. 



. . . curriculum becomes a 
process of development 

rather than a body of 

knowledge to be covered 

or learned . . . 



Doll, 1989, 
p. 250 



A Process-oriented Curriculum 

Curriculum must be developed and delivered in a way that 
accommodates transformation. Specified topics and general 
outcomes are the starting point in curriculum conception. 

Curriculum: 

• is defined by the activity of meaning-making 

• is a combination of possibility, potentiality and process 

• is an open system rather than a pre-determined destination 

• focuses on dialoguing, negotiating and interacting 

• emerges as students and teachers interact within the learning 
community 

• is a student's personal process of inquiry and discovery — 
foundational truths are often questioned or reconceptualized in this 
personal process. 



A process curriculum: 

• focuses on students' own processes of dialoguing, negotiating and 
interacting with teacher, peers and content material 

• depends upon the belief that order and meaning require and arise 
from disorder or chaos 

• is creative, spontaneous and transformative. 



GT.197 



Developing Generative Topics 

Generative topics are the essential underpinnings of a process 
curriculum. They are the practical "how" which bring the 
post-modern transformation of learning, pedagogy and curriculum 
development into the classroom. Teaching and learning for true 
understanding rely on topics with limitless depth, various points and 
levels of entry, diverse perspectives, and multiple connections to other 
topics and the world. Generative topics naturally lead to inquiry, 
questions, anomalies and a passionate need for further research. 

The following stages outline a teacher's process of choosing and 
developing a generative topic. 

Stage One — Determining Overarching Goals and Themes 

Teachers develop broad, overarching goals. These goals are not 
meant as linear objectives or predetermined, controlling outcomes, 
rather, they serve to guide inquiry, structure and classroom discourse, 
and facilitate limitless learning. Such goals are often oriented to 
particular skills or habits of mind. For example. 

• critical thinking skills 

• higher-level thinking skills 

• recognition of relationships and patterns 

• ability to deal with multiple voices and diverse perspectives. 

Once identified, it is important to integrate these goals with themes 
that are central to a unit of study. The following themes (Boyer, 
1993) lend themselves well to the development of generative topics: 

• respecting the miracle of life — understanding the cycles of life 
and knowing about birth and death as part of the cycle 

• empowering the use of language — understanding the significance 
of communication through symbolic and visual language, as well 
as print and oral forms 

• appreciating the aesthetic — understanding culture through its arts 

• understanding groups and institutions — understanding the web of 
social existence 

• revering the natural world — understanding the ecosystems of the 
universe 



• 



• 



affirming the dignity of all work — understanding the significance 
of work of the land as well as work of the mind, and understanding 
producing and consuming 

guiding values and beliefs — questions of purpose and 
understanding the purpose fulness of others. 



GT.198 



Stage Two — Determining Topics 

It is then crucial to pinpoint specific topics that accommodate 
overarching goals. It is often valuable to map a topic, contemplate its 
many possible extensions and connections to other disciplines, and 
visualize its various point of entry. Topics with high generative 
potential: 

• are central to the field of inquiry 

• are critical to understanding the field and its central questions 

• are engaging 

• are relevant to individual learners and the world 

• are accessible at many levels 

• are easily connected to other topics 

• are entered from different contexts 

• are inherently complex, inconsistent, diverse and have a limitless 
quality 

• inspire further research 

• are relevant to other subject areas 

• are capable of eliciting critical thinking and questioning. 

Topics such as "patterns in math or music" or "personal identity in 
literature and in life" allow students to enter, explore and make 
unique connections to other relevant concepts of individual interest. 

Stage Three — Valuing the Generative Process 

The remainder of curriculum emerges through classroom interaction. 
It involves a collaborative student-teacher community, and an 
honouring of student choice and voice. This final level of curriculum 
is a complex web, acknowledging and thriving on multiple voices, 
diverse perspectives, intertextual echoes and global connections. The 
key to a shared, process curriculum is that students constantly reflect 
on the choices they have made and meanings they have construed. 



GT.199 



The following chart identifies principles that are essential in developing a generative curriculum. 



PRINCIPLES 


TEACHER/STUDENT INVOLVEMENT 


Element of student choice 


Students help define content — select the particular 
biography to read or particular play to present. 


Individual levels of entry 


Students enter topic from unique vantage points and 
personal planes of experience. They have the 
opportunity to explore the web of connections and 
pursue their own paths. Students have time to 
wonder, work around the edges of subject matter and 
find a particular direction that interests them. 


Indeterminance/delayed intentionality 


Students sense that the results of their work are not 
predetermined or fully predictable. They enjoy a 
sense of freedom and believe teachers and peers learn 
something from them. 


Sense of discovery 


Topics have an unusual quality, or common, familiar 
concepts are approached and explored in a new way, 
evoking lingering questions. 


Broadened concept of product 


Teachers encourage, legitimize and respect different 
forms of expression and value originality. 


Mastery 


Students gain some form of expertise in their unique 
paths of inquiry. They create original and public 
products to be shared with peers, teachers and other 
appropriate audiences. 


Reflective demonstration of 
understanding 


Students are able to critically discuss their paths of 
inquiry with a reflective audience who pays attention 
to the details of their work and provides a thoughtful 
response to their findings. 


Experiential learning 


Learning tasks and endeavours are truly authentic and 
somehow relevant to the world. Students do 
something, such as participate in political action, 
write a letter to an editor, work with people who are 
homeless or develop an exhibition. 


Passion 


Students and teachers are passionate about the 
material; the richest activities are those that emerge 
and evolve out of student interest and invention. 



GT.200 



Inquiry-based Teaching and Learning 

A student's path of inquiry should be guided by viable, provocative 
questions. It is up to teachers not only to pose questions which 
require original, productive thinking, but more importantly, create a 
learning climate which inspires risk taking and critical thinking. 
Teachers need to present material in an open, partial way, to ensure 
students actively question and contest. 

What? vs. So What? 
What? 

"What" inquiry consists of simple, lower-level questioning (who, 
what, where). Convergent thinking and single-answer questioning is 
important for detail mastery, but students must be challenged and 
challenge themselves to apply, evaluate and synthesize material rather 
than simply memorize and regurgitate. 

So What? 

"So what" inquiry is more complex and higher level. Posing the 
question, "So what?" requires that students take a position, offer a 
different interpretation or construct an alternative path. Complex, 
open-ended questioning techniques focus on cause-effect 
relationships, consequences, connections, and thoughtful analysis and 
synthesis. Higher-level questions promote critical thinking. 

The teacher's role in facilitating inquiry-based learning includes the 
following. 

• Consider the skills that should be focused on for the unit; e.g., 

- critical thinking skills 

- higher-level thinking skills 

- recognition of relationships and patterns 

- ability to deal with multiple voices and diverse perspectives. 

• Establish important themes and concepts. 

• Find a way for students to identify with themes and concepts from 
their own life experiences. 

• Search for meaningful national and global perspectives on the 
same themes or concepts: examine news and media sources, as 
well as pop culture phenomena. 

• Consider the instructional strategies which would best facilitate 
inquiry-based learning; e.g., 

- jigsaw strategy 

- creative projects 

- journalling questions to guide discovery 

- consider the ways in which the current topic connects to the next 
unit of study. 



GT.201 



Scaffolding Student Inquiry 

The following can be distributed to students to cue and focus their 
process of inquiry or self-directed study. These guidelines lead 
students from topic selection and focus, through resource location and 
interpretation, application and presentation, and self-evaluation of 
methodology. 

Define the need for information. 

• What do you need information about? 

• Why do you need information? 

• What do you already know? 

• List, cluster and mind map associations. 

• Generate further questions. 

• Focus your questions. 

Initiate the search strategy. 

• Break your question into subquestions. 

• Identify keywords or concepts. 

• Organize ideas visually (lists, outlines, webs, mind-maps). 

• Identify potential information sources. 

Locate resources. 

Search for: 

print resources 
audiovisual resources 
computer resources 
community resources 
government publications 
experts in the subject area 
other. 

Assess and comprehend the information. 

Skim and scan to identify relevant information. 

Identify what is fact vs. what is opinion. 

Determine point of view of each source; consider potential for 

bias. 

Determine how current each resource is. 

Recognize errors and omissions. 

Consider related concepts. 

Look for cause-and-effect relationships. 

Make note of points of agreement and disagreement. 

Classify, group or label information. 



GT.202 



My first task, then, was to 

find out what kind of 

individuals I had in that 

classroom; my second was 

to help them build 

communities of support. 

O'Reilley, 1993, 
p. 23 



Interpret the information. 

• Summarize information in your own words: paraphrase or quote 
important facts and details. 

• Synthesize new information with what you already know. 

• Does the information address your original problem? 

• Begin to draw conclusions based on the information located 

Communicate the information. 

• What is your conclusion or resolution to the original problem? 

• How will you demonstrate your understanding? 

• What audience are you trying to reach? 

• Will your approach be informative, persuasive or entertaining? 

• What format will work best in presenting the information — 
written, spoken, visual? 

• Create your presentation — provide appropriate documentation of 
your sources! 

Evaluate the product and process. 

• Self-reflection: consider what did and did not work; reflect on 
things you would change. 

• Peer/teacher responses: what information did your audience 
emerge with? Is this congruent with the information you hoped to 
convey? 

The Stories We Tell Ourselves: A Sample 
Generative Curriculum Unit 

The following unit is from a generative topic which teachers and 
students can enter depending on needs, preferences, contexts, interests 
and current understandings. It is not a series of prescriptive, step-by- 
step lesson plans to be implemented or enacted in a specific 
classroom. It is meant as an outline. The content of the generative 
curriculum unit will emerge through reflective, interactive negotiation 
between teacher, learner and material. 

The topic chosen to illustrate the generative curriculum unit, "The 
Stories We Tell Ourselves," is interdisciplinary, non-graded and 
broad enough in scope to incorporate all of the principles of 
differentiation. It is also reflective of post-modern approaches to 
curriculum development. 

The following three stages illustrate the elements of the learning 
sequence as curriculum evolves from the generative topic, "The 
Stories We Tell Ourselves." 



GT.203 



Ifwe... respect the inner 
world of the student, try to 
help her gain access to it 

and to express it with 

power and authority to a 

community of listeners, we 

are crafting a different 

future 

O'Reilley, 1993, 
p. 52 



Stage One — Explorations 

Students embark on a safari-of-self through which they explore their 
personal pasts, and discover and develop commanding voices with 
which to articulate and express their inner landscapes. 

Stage Two — Excavations 

Students then set out to excavate the collective past through a 
rigourous examination of the tales which construct culture. It is a 
voyage which entails unearthing the mythology, history, music, art 
and philosophy underlying the stories that we, as a culture, have told 
and re-told. 



Stage Three — Transformation: Going Forward as an Authentic 
Archaeologist 

Finally, students recursively revisit personal mythology in light of the 
conventions, patterns and recurring motifs of the greater cultural 
narrative. Reading one's personal story in the context of the broader 
cultural story enables learners to locate their individual path in the 
context of the universal map, and envision themselves as active 
weavers of their present and future worlds. 

The following sample unit does not spell out specific objectives for 
teachers or students. However, teachers must be aware of the skills, 
concepts and attitudes mandated by the programs of study for the 
particular grade or grades in question. They must carefully weave 
these prescriptive curriculum objectives into the generative process, 
which otherwise relies heavily on student choice in determining the 
content, process and product of the learning experience. 

Overarching Goals 

The following overarching goals should guide teaching and learning 
throughout the unit of study. 

• Students must be encouraged to tap into their personal worlds, 
locate authentic, independent voices, and see themselves as active 
creators of their present and future worlds. 

• Students should become familiar with the stories of the past and 
come to recognize the ways in which their personal stories are 
connected to the greater multicultural narrative. 

• Students should become aware of the ways in which foundational 
archetypes are recuperated in subsequent literature and 
contemporary, popular expressions of culture. 



GT.204 



• The transformation motif, which pervades much folklore and 
mythology, is evoked repeatedly in the stories that contemporary 
culture tells itself; tales of magic, enchantment, metamorphoses, 
journey, quest, and literal and figurative transformation are 
constantly recalled and re-presented. In order to be active creators 
of present and future worlds, students must become familiar with 
the collective unconscious. They must also come to see the 
relevance of the transformation motif to their own personal 
narratives, mythologies and stories. 

• Sophisticated literary analysis skills, such as intertextuality, 
parody, satire, symbolism and allusion emerge naturally in the path 
of inquiry. Teachers can name and extend the complex concepts 
students employ in the course of discovering and unearthing 
different layers of textual meaning. A mastery of these tools not 
only influences the way we approach texts, but also the way we 
read the world. 

• Crucial critical-thinking skills are developed as learners explore 
multiple perspectives, versions, and voices; seemingly fixed, 
original stories and symbols are questioned, unsettled and 
deconstructed, and the notion of "author-ity" is exposed as an open 
system rather than an absolute, univocal centre. 

• Throughout the course of study, it is important to involve students 
in the endeavor of thinking about their thinking and equip them 
with the skills to chart their own unique, complex processes of 
learning. Learners develop metacognitive skills through constantly 
reflecting on the layers of meaning that are added throughout the 
unit of study. In the same way that texts are transformed as motifs 
and archetypes are passed, re-presented and re-interpreted through 
time, so too is a learner's understanding constantly transformed 
through encounters with additional information and perspectives. 

Stage One: Explorations 

Students should keep a discover journal or an explorer's log as they 
begin to make their way into the world within. Time must be built in 
for students to document their discoveries throughout the unit of 
study. These discoveries may consist of personal thoughts, 
reflections, revelations and insights, as well as required activity 
responses and notes. Journal responses can take a variety of forms, 
depending on the purpose of the entry. Students can decorate and 
respond with relevant visual images: magazine pictures, sketches, 
paintings, post cards, photographs, comic strips, greeting cards, 
quotes, song lyrics, etc. 



GT.205 



Learner's Discovery of Self 
Teacher's Role 

• Help learners locate an authentic personal voice. 

• Provide students with a sense of ownership and a sense of the way 
in which individual creations define the collective learning space. 

• Facilitate self-awareness through having students explore the 
pieces of their pasts and personal symbolism. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Mind Mapping 

Mind mapping is a valuable cognitive processing tool, integrating 
right and left brain thinking skills, graphically organizing complex 
concepts and enhancing memory. Mapping "self is an excellent 
starting point for familiarizing students with this complex 
cognitive strategy. Students can eventually transfer and apply 
mapping strategies to other topics and learning situations. 

Students can create personal mind maps to visually and 
symbolically express their personal identities and life stories. 
Students simply write their names or represent themselves at the 
beginning, top or centre of the map, and their unique story unfolds. 

- This activity allows an abundance of space for student choice 
and voice: maps may be creative self-portraits illustrating 
passions and interests, personal treasure maps charting learners' 
stories, dream-weaving webs mapping out personal visions and 
aspirations, or trees connecting self to family and significant 
others. 

- Students can adopt symbol systems to creatively represent 
themselves, family members, geographical locations or 
significant life-journey events. This allows students to work 
through the concept of metaphor relative to their own world. 

- Life-story maps provide an autobiographical base which can be 
revisited throughout the year and become a way of charting 
one's learning journey and personal growth over time. 

- This activity is an excellent lead in to a study of the hero 
archetype and quest narrative patterns. 



• 



Symbolic Self 

Students create an artistic artifact to represent themselves. 

- Students consider ways in which intrinsic characteristics can be 
symbolically or creatively represented. 

- Self-constructs can be used to decorate the classroom, infusing 
learning space with a sense of student voice and ownership. 



GT.206 



- Symbolic selves can serve as an organizational tool to structure 
classroom space and enhance metacognition. Students can 
physically locate and relocate their self-representations on an 
organizational board or scaffold to indicate which learning 
centre or classroom space they feel they need to work in at a 
particular time. 

• Unearthing a Mosaic 

Mosaics are pictures or decorative patterns that tell a story. Many 
small, multicolored chips are used to create a larger visual 
representation. Early mosaics tell sacred stories about ancient 
worlds — how people lived and what was important to them — 
providing archaeologists with revealing glimpses into the past. 
Students can begin by examining the ancient mosaics of early 
cultures. Ensure that they document their observations and 
questions in their discovery journals. The following questions 
provide a starting point. 

- What stories do these mosaics tell? 

- What important clues do these mosaics provide as we attempt to 
read the story of the past? 

- Do you notice any patterns or recurring symbols as you examine 
different mosaics? 

Students can then create their own mosaics, using pottery 
fragments or small pieces of coloured construction paper. Students 
can draw or paint pictures, scenes or symbols on mosaic pieces; 
glue magazine pictures, pieces of nature, photographs or other 
treasured items; write words, lines of poetry or favourite song 
lyrics. 

Encourage students to think both of the individual chips and their 
vision for the overall picture. The smaller pieces of themselves 
should also be thought of as an artistic whole. 

- This activity provides students with an alternative, artistic way 
of telling their stories. 

- It also lends itself to several extension activities as the class 
moves into excavating the collective cultural past. Students can 
choose a mosaic or artistic artifact and become a story spinner, 
translating an ancient artifact' s message into a story, or students 
can act as authentic historians, researching an early culture, 
discussing the historical, social and cultural context from which 
a mosaic or piece of art emerges. 

Tales and their Tellers 
Teacher's Role 

• Facilitate an awareness of the ways in which stories are 
transformed through retellings. 



GT.207 



• Promote an understanding of point of view, persona, perspective 
and the subjective craft of the narrator. 

• Approach authorship as an open system which is inevitably subject 
to the bias of the teller. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Artifact Writing 

Have students bring a treasure or artifact from home and create 
their own folklore. Students should first share the object's story or 
personal significance with the class. They may then embark on a 
"wildmind" (or freewriting) adventure, through which they record 
their tales. Once they have completed the first draft of their 
artifact stories, students may move into groups of two or three and 
collectively create a fictitious oral tale tying their various personal 
artifacts together. They can share their collective narrative with 
the class and discuss the ways in which their new, imaginative 
story varies from their individual first-draft stories. Individual 
students may then wildmind a second time, allowing the original 
story and the collectively reconstructed version to blur into one 
another. Students should consider the similarities and differences 
between the two wildmind writing samples they produce. 

- This activity explores the symbolic connection between objects 
and their associated meanings and stories. 

- It illustrates the ways in which stories are altered and 
transformed as additional layers of meaning are added through 
collective re-tellings. 

- Students become familiar with the prewriting technique of 
wildmind or freewriting, which becomes useful in later creative 
writing activities and assignments. 

• Multiple Voices 

In a writer's workshop group, have students recall and narrate a 
particular event or real-life story. Once they have orally recounted 
their personal anecdotes, they may then write the stories from the 
perspective of a person, object or place that was also involved. 

As a precursor to this activity, it may be useful to provide students 
with examples of the ways in which tales are influenced by their 
tellers. For instance, compare passages of Jane Eyre with passages 
from The Wide Sargasso Sea, or the same fairy tale told from 
different points of view. Discuss the differences between the two 
versions of the same story, and the ways in which the details and 
descriptions included in each text depend on the bias of the 
narrator. 

- Students become aware of the effects that narrative persona and 
perspective have on the content and slant of a story. 



GT.208 



- Subjective bias of authorship is exposed and the differences 
between various points of view are revealed. This may require a 
mini-lesson regarding first person, third person and third person 
omniscient narrators. 

- Students are forced to question the narrative assumptions 
embedded in univocal texts. As students revisit their original 
stories, they consider the ways in which what may have been 
true or worthy of report for one voice may be irrelevant or 
untrue when the episode is recounted from another perspective. 

Claiming Author-ity: Self as Storyteller 
Teacher's Role 

• Develop a sense of prowess in the craft of story telling. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Writing for Our Lives 

Students write their memoirs or autobiographies. 

As a prewriting tool, it may be valuable to have students fill in a 

narrative time line by considering some of the following memory 

tuggers: 

- favourite friends growing up 

- favourite toys and games 

- places you have lived 

- life events which have resulted in personal change or 
transformation 

- influential friends and family members 

- school experiences, favourite subjects and teachers 

- passions and interests at various stages in your journey 

- personal growth, development and identity. 

This activity: 

- familiarizes students with the generic conventions of 
autobiography 

- becomes an avenue for exploring the life stories of historical and 
contemporary heroes and heroines 

- encourages students, when critically approaching biographies 
and autobiographies (others and their own), to consider 
subjective bias and to reflect on whether it is possible to 
truthfully tell one's story. 

• Choose Your Own Adventure 

Invite students to embark on a time-travelling adventure. They can 
choose a geographical, historical or imaginative destination. 

Travelling through Time Zones — Students can design appropriate 
time-travel vehicles that will transport them to their chosen 
destinations. They can construct models, draw comprehensive 



GT.209 



diagrams or provide written descriptions of their machines. 
Encourage students to consider the connection or link between 
their time-travel vessels and their destinations. (If they are 
travelling to ancient Greece, for instance, a flying chariot may be 
appropriate.) 

Writing Home — Students may then send letters or postcards to 
family or friends from their chosen destinations. They could 
include a description of the time or place they have travelled to, the 
sights they have seen and the people or beings they have met. In 
place of a letter, some students may want to write stories, travel 
guides or movie scripts. 

Coming Home — Students can record their homecoming 
re-orientation in their discovery journals, reflecting on the lessons 
they learned in their explorations, considering how they were 
transformed by their adventures. This: 

- provides a foundation from which to explore the hero myth, 
journey motif, quest narratives and tales of transformation 

- lends itself to in-depth research of a particular destination, 
geographical location or historical context 

- provides the opportunity for a mini-lesson on the genre of travel 
writing. 

• The Mythology of Popular Culture 

Have students keep a scrapbook of media-constructed heroes, 
heroines and villains (from movie to stars to politicians). This: 

- provides a starting point from which to explore conventions of 
mythology and the hero motif 

- explores the ways in which media constructs and mythologizes 
individuals. 

Stage Two: Excavations 

In this portion of the unit, teachers should familiarize students with 
conventional literary archetypes, motifs, metaphors, conventions and 
story-telling patterns. This can be achieved through a comprehensive 
study of literal and metaphorical transformations in ancient 
mythology and traditional folklore. 

It is also important for students to explore the ways in which 
traditional mythology is represented in other written, oral, visual and 
media texts. Through examining the connections and relationships 
among aesthetic texts, students gain an awareness of the way in which 
the stories we tell ourselves are comprised of a multitude of discursive 
threads and references. Each time a literary archetype, motif or 
symbol recurs or is recuperated in a subsequent text, its original 
meaning is deepened. 



GT.210 



The mythology study must remain extremely open and be guided by 
student inquiry. Students should be provided with a great deal of 
choice in the tales and texts studied, and any teacher-guided 
information surrounding genre, conventions, narrative structure and 
recurring motifs must emerge from students' questions and 
observations. 



m 



00* 



. . . mythology is an interior 
road map of experience, 

drawn by people who have 
traveled it. . . . myths 

speak to me because they 

express what I know inside 
is true. . . . [they] come 
from the ground of my 

being, the unconscious that 

I have inherited from all 

that has come before me 

Campbell, 1988, 
pp. xvi, 37 



Mythological Foundations 
Teacher's Role 

• Familiarize students with traditional, recurring literacy archetypes, 
motifs, characters, conventions and narrative patterns. 

• Provide students with a variety of myths, tales and narratives. 

• Provide students with an extensive reading list as a starting point 
for their own pursuit and collection of relevant tales. The folklore 
anthology will expand over the course of the unit as students 
supplement it with additional tales. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Recursive Response Journal — Students can select and respond to 
a number of tales from the anthology and acquaint themselves with 
recurring conventions, symbols and narrative patterns. Students 
can respond to tales they are reading in a recursive response 
journal ... a personal, informal writing space in which students 
may "talk back" to the tales they encounter and document growing 
understanding through revisiting earlier entries in light of 
subsequent texts. Students chart their learning path of inquiry by: 

- considering and recording prior knowledge of a concept, novel, 
author or genre before first reading 

- documenting their immediate response to the first reading of a 
selected piece of literature — students should use only the right 
page of journals and a specific colour of ink for these initial 
thoughts and reactions, and can mind map the story (characters, 
relationships, plots and symbols) for each tale 

- revisiting original responses as the unit of study progresses. 
Students should reserve the left side of the journal — and a 
different pen colour — for additional ideas and reflections. This 
enables students to: 

• make note of conventions, themes, symbols and characters as 
they recur from tale to tale 

• record any observations concerning narrative patterns — story 
structure, plot development, point of view 

• compare and contrast a repeated motif, archetype or 
convention as they appear in different stories 

• question their assumptions and chart their growing 
understanding. 



GT.211 



Response journals are also an ideal arena for student-teacher 
dialogue. Teachers can respond to students" questions, observe 
developments in thoughts and understanding, and extend students 
in a meaningful, personally relevant way. 

Creating Context 
Teacher's Role 

• Cultivate an awareness of the importance of the social, historical, 
cultural milieu from which tales arise. 

• Recreate the contextual backdrop from which select groups of tales 
^Matton* emerge. Immerse students not only in the literature, but also in the 

social, historical, cultural world that the stories come from. 

Specific Student Activities 

• The Land of Enchantment 

Journey back to Anglo-Saxon England. Have individuals and 
groups of students research the time period of popular folk and 
fairy tales. Students can research the original storytellers. Some 
groups can study and emulate peasant life, industry and family 
structure. Others can research and imaginatively create castles, 
kingdoms and enchanted forests. Students can create murals, 
models and authentic artifacts. 

Certain days and times can be reserved for large and small group 
story dramas in which students and teachers assume specific roles 
and enact historical or literary events, or simply live a 
day-in-the-life, dine on appropriate cuisine, listen to traditional 
folk music, engage in oral story telling and sell student-created 
handicrafts. 

• The Classical World 

Time travel back to the classical world of ancient Greece and 
Rome. Have each student assume a carefully researched identity 
or character. This should be a truly interdisciplinary endeavour — 
your classical culture should consist of philosophers, astronomers, 
mathematicians, rulers, servants, poets, playwrights, military and 
regular citizens. Recreate the Festival of Dionysus and attend a 
trilogy of plays. Stage a polis election. Compete in the Olympic 
games. Re-enact specific myths and emulate god and goddess life 
atop Mount Olympus. 

• Canada's Mythology 

First, study what you know about a local tribe in your community. 
Then study other tribes and compare the similarities and 
differences. Research food, family, daily activities, celebrations 
and ceremonies. Utilize the resources within your community. 
Invite an Aboriginal storyteller and an elder into your classroom. 
Attend an Aboriginal ceremony or feast. Study other tribes in 
Canada. 



GT.212 



Beyond the Written Word 
Teacher's Role 

• Broaden the concept of textuality. Extend the definition of text 
beyond written works to include any product of culture. Students 
should be encouraged to view everything from music, visual arts, 

^** Moi »» media, scientific data, mathematical theorems, theatrical 

productions, speech and gesture as stories. 

• Teachers must value various forms of expression and encourage a 
variety of products for assessment. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Students should study a variety of cultural products as texts. 
Students can examine and compare the same story as told through 
a work of art, a film, a story, an historical text, a personal journal, 
medical records or media constructions, exploring the various 
pieces which comprise a culture's identity. Teachers can model 
this multi-textual study by bringing in alternative representations 
of classical myths. For example, 

- read the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice 

- read Ovid's poem Orpheus and Eurydice 

- study Jacques Offenbach's opera, Orpheus in the Underworld 
(Orphee aux Enfers) (1858) 

- listen to Christoph Willibald Gluck's Orpheus and Eurydice 
(Orfeo and Euridice) ( 1 762) 

- read Rainer Maria Rilke's "Orpheus, Eurydice, Hermes" (1904) 

- read Jean Cocteau's Orpheus (1926) 

- read Jean Anouilh's Eurydice (1941) 

- listen to Franz Liszt's symphonic poem Orpheus 

- study Titian's painting Orpheus and Eurydice 

- study Poussin's painting Landscape with Orpheus and Eurydice. 

• The concept of evaluative product should also be broadened. 
Students should be encouraged to demonstrate their understanding 
of a particular concept or their version of a particular tale through a 
variety of media, such as: 

- poetry 

- narrative 

- film or 3D animation 

- emulating a particular artistic form or style popular to a specific 
culture 

- oral presentation or reenactment of traditional storytelling 

- journal entry of a mythic or folk character. 



GT.213 



The Malleability of Myth 
Teacher's Role 

• Develop students' ability to handle multiple points of view and 
diverse perspectives. 

• Ensure that students approach various textual voices and versions 
critically, with an awareness of subjective/authorial bias and a 
consideration of the repercussions of re-tellings and recuperated 
motifs. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Study multiple versions of the same essential story or myth. 

• Ensure that students examine variations and detail differences in 
relation to the individual storyteller or the culture from which the 
re-telling emerges. This often becomes a valuable source of 
contextual information as variations can be the result of a 
culture/storyteller's idiosyncratic values, beliefs and issues. 

- Grimm's version of Little Red Cap can be compared to the 
traditional folk version of The Story of the Grandmother, 
Perrault's Little Red Riding Hood, and Chang's The Chinese Red 
Riding Hoods. 

- Grimm's Ashputtle can be compared to Perrault's The Little 
Glass Slipper and the Canadian Aboriginal version Little Burnt 
Face. 

- Compare the Disney movies of familiar folk and fairy tales with 
traditional versions. 

- Compare the differences in illustrations of a specific tale 
between two or more texts. 

INTERTEXTUAL ECHOES 
Teacher's Role 

I***"* 01 ** • Facilitate intertextual awareness. Draw students' attention to the 
Ifecursiofl wa Y m which texts overtly and covertly refer to other texts. 

• Encourage students to consider the way in which these intertextual 
references and reverberations transform a concept, story or version. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Trace a story, myth or tale from its traditional origins, through 
literary adaptations and modern recuperations. 

- Rags to Riches 

Trace the Cinderella story from Perrault through to 
contemporary adaptations, references and reworkings. The 
classic fairy tale theme continuously resurfaces in everything 
from modern films ("Pretty Woman"), literature and media. 



GT.214 



tffl 



• 



- The Quest of the Hero 
The journey of Odysseus and the trials of Hercules have greatly 
influenced the modern myth of the hero. Compare traditional 
hero quests with contemporary quest narratives, such as Star 
Wars, Indiana Jones, Paelo Coelho's novel The Alchemist and 
stories featuring female heroines. A particularly useful resource 
for this comparison is Joseph Campbeirs The Hero with a 
Thousand Faces (1949) and Marian Murdoch's The Heroine 's 
Journey. 

Find a pop culture echo of a traditional story or myth. Students 
should watch for any contemporary references to mythological 
archetypes, symbols, characters or themes. References may take 
the form of an overt allusion, parody or re-telling, or may 
inadvertently draw on themes or patterns that are somehow 
reminiscent of conventional mythology. Students should consider 
the ways in which traditional stories inform our contemporary 
imagination. 

Left to Our Own Literary Devices 
Teacher's Role 

• Provide students with a repertoire of thinking/reading skills to 
critically approach the literary and historical stories a culture tells 
itself. 

• Many of these student activities naturally open the door to a 
discussion or mini-lesson surrounding the following concepts: 

- allusion: a reference, explicit or indirect, to a well-known 
person, place, event, or to another literary work or passage 

- parody: an imitation of the serious materials and manner of a 
particular literary work or the characteristic style of an author — 
often, the stylistic and other features of a serious literary form 
are applied to a comically inappropriate subject 

- satire: the art of diminishing a subject by making it ridiculous 
and evoking attitudes of amusement or scorn 

- intertextuality: the ways in which texts are linked, whether 
overtly through a specific allusion or reference, or inadvertently 
through similar theme, characters, structure, style or language. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Students may find relevant examples of these concepts in the 
material they are studying. They may also decide to employ one of 
the above techniques or concepts in their own creative re-telling of 
a particular tale or myth. 



GT.215 



t^tafe*!* 



Active Constructors of Meaning 
Teacher's Role 

• Allow students to apply the repertoire of critical thinking and 
reading tools they have mastered. Enable students to see 
connections between the past, present and future. 



Specific Student Activities 

• Students can re-tell, re-craft, modernize, alter or parody a 
traditional tale. They can communicate their modified version 
orally, visually, narratively, artistically, theatrically or otherwise. 



turfrtoo. 



Connections Across the Disciplines 
Teacher's Role 

• Encourage students to see cross-disciplinary connections, transfer 
knowledge and concepts to other subject areas. 



Rather than deny the role 

personalness and 

subjectivity play in 

interpretation, one uses 

personalness and 

subjectivity to help achieve 

better, deeper, more 

comprehensive 

understanding. 

Doll, 1993, p. 292 



Specific Student Activities 

• Provide students with the opportunity to apply their learning 
through integrated projects or student-run workshops that tie 
storytelling knowledge to other curricular subjects and other 
interdisciplinary activities. 
- A math project, for instance, could incorporate the theories and 

theorems of Classical mathematicians. A science activity could 

be focussed on Greek astronomy or First Nations view of nature. 

Social studies mapping assignments could record the origins of 

world folk stories. 



I****. 



00* 



Stage Three: Transformations 
Creating Metafiction 
Teacher's Role 

• Encourage students to demonstrate their understanding of the 
stories our culture tells itself in personally relevant and meaningful 
ways. Guide students to integrate their own life stories into the 
greater cultural text. 

• Draw students* attention to the tenuous line between truth and 
fiction, as well as between personal and collective. 

Specific Student Activities 

• Students apply their understanding of traditional narrative forms, 
conventions, patterns, motifs, themes, symbols and archetypes 
explored within the unit of study by: 

- creatively re-writing their own life stories using folk/mythical 
conventions, symbols, language and patterns 

- writing themselves into a familiar myth, story or folk tale 



GT.216 



constructing or producing their own creative anthologies. 
Students can produce a collection of personal and published 
stories, intermingling personal anecdotes, autobiography 
excerpts, and ancestral narratives with formal myths and tales 
studied over the course of the unit. Students can unify their 
anthologies thematically by seeking cultural tales that somehow 
connect with their own personal context. Their anthologies 
could be expressed theatrically, narratively, artistically, 
poetically or in any combination. 



GT.217 



SECTION 7: APPENDICES 



GT.218 



I 

I 

I 

I 



Section 2: Conceptions of Giftedness 



Appendix 1 

Recognizing Giftedness: Identifying Characteristics 

Student's Name: Grade: School Year: 



School: Teacher/Evaluator: 



Directions: Examine each of the following statements as it pertains to a particular intelligence. 
Then, using the scale below, indicate the degree to which each statement describes the student's 
behaviour or interest compared to other students his or her age. 



1 — Rarely, seldom or never 3 — Quite often or frequently 

2 — Occasionally, sometimes 4 — Almost always or always 

DK — Don't know or have never observed 



General Intelligence 

Rapid learner; masters content, skills, concepts and procedures sooner (at an earlier age), 

faster (with less drill and practice) and more thoroughly (in greater depth or breadth) 

Highly inquisitive/intensely curious; has interests that are widely eclectic and/or intensely 

focused; may have numerous hobbies and/or collections 

Exceptionally eager, enthusiastic and energetic (mentally and/or physically); has an intense 

desire to know, understand, do, feel or create 

Thrives in challenging/complex problem solving situations; takes pleasure in intellectual 

activity 

Has an unusually long attention span; sustains long periods of concentration 

Highly motivated; becomes intensely absorbed in various pursuits (particularly those which 

initially intrigue him or her); persistent in task completion 

Creative, imaginative, inventive and versatile in thought, expression or action 

Intuitive, recognizes connections or deeper meanings without conscious awareness of 

thoughts or feeling; may not always be able to explain how he or she reached a conclusion 

or why a solution is correct 

Has a keen sense of humour that may be gentle or hostile; enjoys puns, jokes, nonsense 

rhymes, tongue twisters, cartoons, comics, comedies, satires 

Has an excellent memory for words, numbers, images, sensations, actions or events 



B. Verbal-Linguistic 

Possesses an extensive, advanced receptive (listening/reading) and expressive 

(speaking/writing) vocabulary 

Acutely sensitive to the meaning and structure of language 

Effectively uses language (spoken/written) to request, respond, entertain, direct or 

convince others 

Has a vast storehouse of information on a variety of topics 

Enjoys listening to the spoken word (material read aloud, storytelling, radio commentary) 



GT.219 



Section 2: Conceptions of Giftedness 



Reads widely, intensely and at an advanced level 

Communicates effectively in two or more languages (or indicates a strong desire to) 

Adept at word games and puzzles; e.g., Scrabble™, Boggle™, crossword puzzles, solving 

riddles 

C. Logical-Mathematical 

Possesses strong powers of abstraction; conceptualization and synthesizing abilities 

Readily grasps underlying principles; generalizes skillfully; makes valid assumptions 

Skillfully uses logic to order/organize information and discover patterns, relationships and 

connections 

Readily perceives similarities, differences and anomalies 

Has rapid insight into cause-effect relationships 

Is skeptical, critical and evaluative; quick to spot inconsistencies 

Adept at experimental inquiry; questions to discover the "hows," "whys," and "what ifs;" 

readily formulates hypotheses; skillfully conducts research 

Readily masters math skills, concepts and processes 

Adept at games of strategy; e.g., chess, checkers. Clue™, Tetris™, and solving logic 

puzzles and brainteasers 

D. Visual-Spatial 

Sensitive to aesthetic quality and intrinsic beauty of things 

Possess strong directionality and orientation-in-space skills 

Visualizes skillfully; reports vivid mental images 

Has a strong sense of the significant; has an eye for important details 

Artistic and productive in one or more visual mediums (drawing, painting, sculpting, 

designing, drafting, photography) 
Incorporates a large number of elements into art work; varies the subject and content; 

produces balance and order in finished product 

Adept at reading/drawing maps, charts, graphs, diagrams 

Enjoys movies, videos, slides, photographs or other visual presentations 

E. Musical-Rhythmic 

Easily learns, remembers and accurately reproduces melodies 

Sensitive to the rhythm in music; responds by tapping, clapping or other body movement; 

able to keep time with music when playing a simple percussion instrument 

Adept at playing one or more musical instruments (or indicates a strong desire to learn) 

Skillfully composes music and/or writes lyrics 

Ably sings in a choir or other choral group 

Sensitive to environmental sounds; e.g., rain on a rooftop, ticking clocks, birds singing 

F. RotliK -Kinesthetic 

Handles his or her body with ease and poise 

Adept at mimicry; role playing, improvizing, acting 

Has a well-developed sense of timing and sequence 

Effectively uses gestures, facial expressions and body language to communicate thoughts 

and feelings 



GT.220 



Section 2: Conceptions of Giftedness 



Is naturally athletic; highly skilled at balance, movement and body control 
Adept at manipulating objects; skilled at penmanship, keyboarding, building three 
dimensional objects, assembling models, making crafts, carpentry, mechanics 
Actively pursues opportunities to attend and/or participate in athletic (sports or dance) 
and/or theatrical performances 



G. Naturalist 

Acutely aware of and responsive to the natural environment 

Keenly observant and highly alert; sees the unusual, what might be overlooked by others 

Perceives connections and patterns in the plant and animal kingdoms 

Readily discerns, identifies, categorizes and classifies plants, animals, minerals, soils, 

clouds and other features in the natural world 
Enjoys outdoor pursuits (camping, hiking, bird watching, etc.) 

H. Intrapersonal 

Keenly aware of personal thought processes, motivations and emotions; is reflective and 

introspective 

Has a well-developed sense of self; is realistic about capabilities and limitations 

Works well independently; is organized, conscientious and goal-directed 

Perfectionistic; exhibits high personal standards; may set unrealistic expectations; may 

procrastinate 
Emotionally sensitive and intense; sensitive to injustice, criticism, sarcasm, rejection, joy, 

kindness, love; has a highly developed moral and ethical sense 
Confident; self-assured; takes calculated risks; is comfortable espousing unconventional or 

unpopular positions; unwilling to accept authoritarian pronouncements without critical 

examination 
Individualistic; does not fear being different; able to be conforming or non-conforming as 

the situation demands 
Prefers individual pursuits to social or group activities 

I. Interpersonal 

Naturally assumes leadership roles; takes initiative and assumes responsibility 

Skilled at organizing, communicating, mediating and negotiating 

Demonstrates character and integrity by expecting and practising qualities associated with 

honesty, fairness and enterprise 

Sociable; relates and responds well to children and adults 

Altruistic and idealistic; is concerned with moral and social issues in the community and the 

world at large 
Favours social pastimes over individual recreations 



GT.221 



Section 3: Identification — Ratings or Referrals 



Brilliant Behaviours 



in 



Appendix 2 



Student . 
Strength 



Date 



True? 


Behaviour 




Humour — Exceptionally keen sense of the comical, bizarre, absurd. 




Motivation — Intense desire to know, do, feel, create or understand. 




Interests — Ardent, sometimes unusual, passionate, sometimes fleeting. 




Communication/Expressiveness — Extraordinary ability to convey meaning or 
emotion through words, actions, symbols, sounds or media. 




Inquiry — Probing exploration, observation or experimentation with events, objects, 
ideas, feelings, sounds, symbols or media. 




Problem-solving — Outstanding ability to bring order to chaos through the invention 
and monitoring of paths to a goal; enjoyment of challenge. 




Sensitivity — Unusually open, perceptive or responsive to experiences, feelings and 
to others. 




Intuition — Sudden recognition of connections or deeper meanings without 
conscious awareness of reasoning or thought. 




Reasoning — Outstanding ability to think things through and consider implications 
or alternatives; rich, highly conscious, goal-oriented thought. 




Imagination/Creativity — Extraordinary capacity for ingenious, flexible use of 
ideas, processes or materials. 




Memory /Knowledge/Understanding — Unusual capacity to acquire, integrate, 
retain and retrieve information or skills. 




Learning — Ability to acquire sophisticated understanding with amazing speed and 
apparent ease. 



GT.222 



Section 3: Identification — Ratings or Referrals 



Appendix 3 



Class Assessment 



112 






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Characteristics 




Advanced vocabulary 






















Good memory 






















Learns quickly and easily 






















Large fund of information 






















Generalizes skillfully 






















Comprehends new ideas readily 






















Makes abstractions easily 






















Perceives similarities, differences, 
relationships 






















Makes judgements and decisions 






















Questions. 

Curious about many topics 






















Has many ideas 






















Sees things in varied ways 






















Offers unique or unusual ideas 






















Adds details; elaborates 






















Transforms or combines ideas 






















Sees implications or consequences easily 






















Risk-taker; speculates 






















Feels free to disagree 






















Finds subtle humour, paradox or 
discrepancies 






















Sets own goals, standards 






















Intense involvement in preferred 
problems and tasks 






















Enthusiastic about interests and activities 






















Needs little external motivation 






















Prefers to concentrate on own interests/ 
projects 






















High level of energy 






















Perseveres 






















Completes, shares products 






















Eager for new projects/challenges 






















Assumes responsibility 























GT.223 



Section 3: Identification — Teacher Nomination 



Appendix 4 



Gifted Students — Teacher Recognition Checklist 



13 



Read each item. Consider the students in the class and fill in the names of those who strongly fit 
the categories listed. The Gifted Students — Individual Rating Scale (on the following page) could 
then be completed for those students whose names appear frequently on this initial recognition list. 



Characteristic 


Students' Names 


Possesses superior powers of reasoning, of dealing 
with abstractions. 








Has great intellectual curiosity. 








Learns easily and readily. 








Has a wide range of interests. 








Has a broad attention span that allows him or her 
to persevere in solving problems. 








Has a superior vocabulary. 








Has the ability to do independent work effectively. 








Has learned to read early (often well before school 
age). 








Exhibits keen powers of observation. 








Shows initiative and originality in class work. 








Shows alertness and a quick response to new 
ideas. 








Has the ability to memorize quickly and easily. 








Has a great interest in the nature of humanity and 
the world. 








Possesses unusual imagination. 








Follows complex directions easily. 








Reads rapidly. 








Has several hobbies. 








Has reading interest that covers a wide range of 
subjects. 








Makes frequent and effective use of the library. 








Demonstrates superior ability in math, particularly 
problem solving. 









GT.224 



Section 3: Identification — Teacher Nomination 



Appendix 4 (cont'd) 



Gifted Students — Individual Rating Scale 1 



Student's Name: 
Date: 



Year Level: 
Age: 



Check the box that best describes the frequency of the following characteristics or behaviours: 

5 Has this trait to a high degree 

4 Has this trait more than the typical child 

3 Compares with the typical child 

2 Has this trait less than the typical child 

1 Lacks this trait 





5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


Has superior powers of reasoning 












Displays intellectual curiosity 












Learns easily 












Has a wide range of interests 












Has a broad attention span 












Has a superior vocabulary 












Works independently 












Learns to read early 












Has keen powers of observation 












Shows initiative and originality 












Is alert 












Memorizes quickly and easily 












Displays interest in humanity 












Has an unusual imagination 












Follows complex directions 












Reads rapidly 












Has several hobbies 












Reads a wide range of subjects 












Uses the library frequently and effectively 












Is superior in mathematics 













Look for patterns of "has this trait to a high degree" rather than an aggregated score. 



GT.225 



Section 3: Identification — Teacher Nomination 



Appendix 5 



Young Gifted Students — Teacher Recognition Checklist 



115 



Read each item. Consider the students in the class and fill in the names of those who strongly fit 
the categories listed. The Young Gifted Students — Individual Rating Scale (on the following 
page) could then be completed for those students whose names appear frequently on this initial 
recognition list. 



Characteristic 


Students' Names 


Has verbal behaviour characterized by richness of 
expression, elaboration and fluency. 








Possesses a large storehouse of information about a 
variety of topics beyond the usual interests of children 
of that age. 








Has rapid insight into cause-effect relationships; tries to 
discover the how and why of things; asks many 
provocative questions; wants to know what makes 
things or people tick. 








Has a ready grasp of underlying principles and can 
quickly make valid generalizations about events, people 
or things; looks for similarities and differences. 








Displays a great deal of curiosity about many things; is 
constantly asking questions about anything and 
everything. 








Generates a large number of ideas or solutions to 
problems and questions. 








Is uninhibited in expressions of opinion. 








Is a high risk taker. 









GT.226 



Section 3: Identification — Teacher Nomination 



Appendix 5 (cont'd) 

Young Gifted Students— Individual Rating Scale" 6 



Student's Name: 
Date: 



Year Level: 
Age: 



Check the box that best describes the frequency of the following characteristics and/or behaviours: 

5 Has this trait to a high degree 

4 Has this trait more than the typical child 

3 Compares with the typical child 

2 Has this trait less than the typical child 

1 Lacks this trait 





5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


Has verbal behaviour characterized by richness of expression, elaboration 
and fluency. 












Possesses a large storehouse of information about a variety of topics 
beyond the usual interests of children that age. 












Has rapid insight into cause-effect relationships; tries to discover the how 
and why of things; asks many provocative questions; wants to know what 
makes things or people tick. 












Has a ready grasp of underlying principles and can quickly make valid 
generalizations about events, people or things; looks for similarities and 
differences. 












Displays a great deal of curiosity about many things; is constantly asking 
questions about anything and everything. 












Generates a large of number of ideas or solutions to problems and 
questions. 












Is uninhibited in expressions of opinion. 












Is a high risk taker. 













Look for patterns of "has this trait to a high degree" rather than an aggregated score. 



GT.227 



Section 3: Identification — Parent Nomination 



Appendix 6 



Parent Identification Form 



117 



Student's Name: 
Parents' Names: 



Year Level: 



Age: 



SECTION A 

Instructions: In relation to the typical child in the neighbourhood, please circle a number for each item 
which best describes your child: 

5 Has this trait to a high degree 

4 Has this trait more than the typical child 

3 Compares with the typical child 

2 Has this trait less than the typical child 

1 Lacks this trait 



Has advanced vocabulary; expresses himself or herself fluently and clearly. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Thinks quickly. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Wants to know how things work. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Is an avid reader. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Puts unrelated ideas together in new and different ways. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Asks reasons why — questions almost everything. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Likes grown-up things and to be with older people. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Has a great deal of curiosity. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Is adventurous. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Has a good sense of humour. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Is impulsive. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Tends to dominate others if given the chance. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Is persistent — sticks to the task. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Has good physical co-ordination and body control. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Is independent and self-sufficient. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Reasons. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Has a wide range of interests. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Has a broad attention span which allows him or her to concentrate and persevere 
in problem solving and pursuing interests. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Shows initiative. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Seeks his or her own answers and solutions to problems. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Has a great interest in the future and/or world problems. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Follows complex directions. 


5 4 3 2 1 



GT.228 



Section 3: Identification — Parent Nomination 



Is prepared to take some social risks. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Is a leader. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Enjoys complicated games. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Sets high goals for himself or herself. 


5 4 3 2 1 


Continually questions the status quo. 


5 4 3 2 1 



SECTION B 

1 . Did your child read before he or she went to school? 

If the answer is yes, did your child teach himself or herself to read? 

2. Does your child play a musical instrument? 
Is so. which? 



Yes / No 

Yes / No 

Yes / No 



3. In what outside activities does your child participate? 



4. What are your child's special interests or hobbies? 



5. What recent books has he or she read and enjoyed? 



6. Please comment, where appropriate, on any of the following: 



Your child's . . 



unusual accomplishments (present or past) 

special talents 

special opportunities 

relationships with others 

preferred activities when alone 

expression of boredom 

special problems and needs. 



GT.229 



Section 3: Identification — Parent Nomination 



Appendix 7 

118 



Twelve Ways Your Child/Student Shows Growth in Thinking Skills 



This is a parent/teacher tool for rating a student's home/school thinking behaviours at the beginning 
and end of a school year. It should identify student strengths and weaknesses, and promote 
parent/teacher team goal setting to help students develop more successful thinking strategies. 

Mark each behaviour using: N = Not Yet S = Sometimes F = Frequently 



During the 



school year, I noticed that 



(Age) 
Parent Teacher 


/ 
















/ 












/ 












/ 









does the following: 



(Name) 



1 . Keeps on trying; does not give up easily. 



2. Shows less impulsivity; thinks more before answering a question. 



3. Listens to others with understanding and empathy. 



4. States several ways to solve a problem (shows flexibility in thinking). 



5. Puts into words how he or she solved a problem; is aware of his or her own thinking. 

6. Checks for accuracy and precision; checks completed work without being asked. 

7. Asks questions; wants to find out new information. 

8. Uses knowledge already learned in new situations; can solve problems in everyday 
living, like using allowance, taking messages, going to the store and practising safety. 

9. Uses words more carefully to describe feelings, wants, etc. 

10. Uses touch, feel, taste, smell, sound and sight to learn; enjoys art, music, 
experimenting and active play. 

1 1 . Enjoys making and doing original things; likes to show individuality in thought and 
dress. 

12. Enjoys problem solving; displays wonderment, inquisitiveness and curiosity. 



GT.230 



Section 3: Identification — Parent Nomination 



\ This year I will help develop skills 

in: 

by: 



Signed: (Parent) 

This year, I will help develop skills 

in: 



Signed: (Teacher) 

Date: Review Date: 



GT.231 



Section 3: Identification — Peer-nomination 



Peer Nomination 



Appendix 8 

119 



Teacher: Grade: Date: 



Identify three students in your class that you think best answer each question. This form is 
anonymous. 

1 . Imagine that your class has been chosen to appear on a popular TV program where participants 
will be asked skill-testing and general-knowledge questions. Which students would you choose 
to represent your class? 



2. Imagine that you're having difficulty understanding your homework assignment that is due 
tomorrow. Who would you call to ask for help? 



3. When you're learning and talking about things in class, which students have the most unusual 
ideas and ask the most interesting questions? 



4. If your class was given a pet, which students would think of the most unusual name for it? 



5. If your class learned a new game, which students would best teach it to another class? 



6. If your class was going to have a special celebration for your teacher, which students could best 
organize it? 



Count the number of times each student's name appears. List the three students whose names 
appear most often. 



GT.232 



Section 3: Identification — Student Interest Inventories 



Student Interest Inventory 1 



20 



Appendix 9 



6JUP£^ lNTEE£^>T iNVt^T^EY 
1 have always Wanted to 





know what" 'it is like to be.. 



write 
about... 



$ 



i 



work with 
sorneone wto 
Knows a tot 
about... 




GT.233 



Section 3: Identification — Student Interest Inventories 



Appendix 10 

Interest Inventory for Young Students 121 



How Do You Feel About 



GT.234 



Section 3: Identification — Student Interest Inventories 



Appendix 10 (cont'd) 

Interest Inventory for Young Students 121 
Sample Completed Form 



How Do You Feel About 



School 



Recess 



Gym 



Reading 



Arithmetic 



GT.235 



Section 3: Identification — Student Interest Inventories 



Student Interest Inventory 



22 



Student's Name: Year Level: 

Date: Age: 

1 . What do you like doing most when you have free time? 



2. My interests at school are: 



3. My interests at home are: 



4. Are you a collector? List the things you collect: 



5. What do you think you are good at? 



6. What do you like to do least? 



GT.236 



Appendix 1 1 



Section 3: Identification — Student Interest Inventories 



Appendix 12 

Interest Inventory for Primary Aged Students 123 



1 . In school, the thing I like to do best is 



2. Outside of school, the thing I like to do best is 

3. If I had a million dollars, I would 

4. When I grow up, I will 

5. I hate 



6. My favourite animal is 

7. The best sport is 



8. When nobody is around, I like to 

9. The person I like best is 

10. Next summer, I hope to 

11. I like to collect 



12. My favourite place to be is 



13. The things I like to make are 

14. The best book I ever read was 

15. The best TV show is 



1 6. What I think is funny is 



GT.237 



Section 3: Identification — Student Interest Inventories 



Interest Inventory for Intermediate Aged Students 



Appendix 13 

.24 



It can be helpful when assigning a topic for a report, suggesting a good book or selecting 
meaningful examples, to know students' preferences and interests. Use the interest inventory 
during the first week of school. 

1 . Outside of school, my favourite activity is 

2. I work at . My job is 



3. The sport I like to watch best is 

4. The sport I like to play best is 



After high school, I plan to 

The job I want to be doing as an adult is 
In school, my favourite subject is 



The subject in which I get the best grade is 
I would like to learn more about 



1 0. My main hobby or leisure time activity is 

1 1 . For pleasure, I read 

12. I spend about hours or 



minutes a week reading for fun. 



1 3 . The best book I have ever read was 

14. The book I am reading now is 

15. My favourite magazine is 



1 6. The part of the world that interests me the most is 

1 7. When I am finished with school, I hope to live in 

1 8. The kinds of books or stories I like to read are 

1 9. My favourite TV show is 

20. What makes me mad is 



GT.238 



Section 3: Identification — Student Profile 



IPP — Student Profile 



25 



Appendix 14 



Name: 
Date: 



Teacher: 



Grade/Class: 



School: 



Learning Styles/Strengths: 



Student Interests: 



Special Abilities: 



Results from Achievement Tests 



Teacher Observations: 



Name of Test 


Date Given 


Result 


























Results from Formal Testing 


Name of Test 


Date Given 


Result 



























Summary of Needs: 



Parent Observations: 



Student's vision, goals for self: 



'Append samples of student work 



GT.239 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 15 



Modality Strength Checklist 



126 



Directions: In each of the 14 sections, check off the one description that best represents your view 
of yourself. Check only one column (V, A or K) for each section. Then, total the 
number of checks for Columns V, A and K. The column with the highest number of 
checks broadly represents your preferred learning modality. 



'F "HE/SHE" 



9. 



V 
VISUAL 



AUDITORY 



KINESTHETIC 



1 . Learning Style Learn by seeing; watching 
demonstrations 



Learn through verbal Learn by doing, direct 

instructions from others or self involvement 



2. Reading 

3. Spelling 

4. Handwriting 

5. Memory 

6. Imagery 

7. Distractibility 



Problem- 
solving 



Response to 
Periods of 
Inactivity 



10. Response to 
New Situations 



Like description; sometimes 
stops reading to stare into 
space and imagine scene; 
intense concentration 



Enjoy dialogue, plays; avoid 
lengthy description; unaware 
of illustrations; move lips or 
sub-vocalize 



Recognize words by sight; Use a phonics approach; have 

rely on configuration of words auditory word attack skills 



Tend to be good, particularly 
when young; spacing and size 
are good; appearance is 
important 

Remember faces, forget 
names; write things down, 
take notes 



Vivid imagination; think in 
pictures, visualize in detail 



Generally unaware of sounds; 
distracted by visual disorder 
or movement 

Deliberate; plan in advance; 
organize thoughts by writing 
them; list problems 



Stare; doodle, find something 
to watch 



Look around; examine 
structure 



Have more difficulty learning 
in initial stages; tend to write 
lightly; say strokes when 
writing 



Remember names; forget 
faces; remember by auditory 
repetition 



Sub-vocalize; think in sounds; 
details less important 



Easily distracted by sounds 



Talk problems out; try 
solutions verbally, sub- 
vocally; talk self through 
problem 



Hum; talk to self or to others 



Prefer stories where action 
occurs early; fidget when 
reading; handle books; not an 
avid reader 

Often a poor speller; write 
words to determine if they 
"feel" right 



Good initially; deteriorate 
when space becomes smaller; 
push harder on writing 
instrument 



Remember best what was 
done, not what was seen or 
talked about 



Imagery not important; 
images that do occur are 
accompanied by movement 



Not attentive to visual, 
auditory presentation so seem 
distractible 

Attack problems physically; 
impulsive; often select 
solution involving greatest 
activity 



Fidget; find reasons to move; 
hold up hand 



Talk about situation, pros and Try things out; touch, feel, 
cons, what to do manipulate 



GT.240 



Section 3: Identification 



•1" "HE/SHE" 



1 1 . Emotionality 



12. Communication 



13. General 



14. 



Response to 
the Arts 



V 
VISUAL 



Somewhat repressed; stare 
when angry; cry easily; beam 
when happy; facial expression 
is a good index of emotion _ 



Quiet; do not talk at length; 
become impatient when 
extensive listening is required; 
may use words clumsily; 
embellishment; use words 
such as see, look. etc. 

Neat, meticulous, like order; 
may choose not to vary 
appearance 



Not particularly responsive to 
music; prefer the visual arts; 
tend not to voice appreciation 
on art of any kind but can be 
deeply affected by visual 
displays; focus on details and 
components rather than the 
work as a whole 



AUDITORY 



Shout with joy or anger; blow 
up verbally but soon calm 
down; express emotion 
verbally and through changes 
in tone, volume, pitch of voice 



Enjoy listening but cannot 
wait to talk; descriptions are 
long but repetitive; like 
hearing self and others talk; 
use words such as listen, 
hear, etc. 



Matching clothes not so 
important; can explain choices 
of clothes 

Favour music; find less appeal 
in visual art but am readily 
able to discuss it; miss 
significant detail; do not 
appreciate the work as a 
whole; am able to develop 
verbal association for all art 
forms; spend more time 
talking about pieces than 
looking at them 



Total checks in each column (combined total must equal 14) 



KINESTHETIC 



Jump for joy; hug, tug and 
pull when happy; stamp, jump 
and pound when angry; stomp 
off; general body tone is a 
good index of emotion 

Gesture when speaking; do 
not listen well; stand close 
when speaking or listening; 
quickly lose interest in 
detailed verbal discourse; use 
words such as get, take, etc. 



Neat but soon become 
wrinkled through activity 



Respond to music by physical 
movement; prefer sculpture; 
touch statues and paintings; at 
exhibits, stop only at those in 
which you can become 
physically involved; comment 
very little on any art form 



K 



Preferred Learning Modality is 



GT.241 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 16 



Learning Preferences 



127 



There are different ways to learn. Indicate your preference by placing a number in the circles: 
1 = Always, 2 = Sometimes, 3 = Seldom. 



I PREFER LEARNING BY: 

O reading books and magazines 

O listening to a person talk or a tape recorder 

O watching people do things 

O watching films, TV or movies 

O putting things together and taking them apart 

O experimenting with things 

O playing a game 

O acting it out 




I PREFER WORKING: 

O alone ^ 

O with an adult 

O for a long period 

O in the morning - c) ji 





O with a friend 
O in a group A ^^SL^ 
O for a short period [m 
O in the afternoon "Q. : O in the evening 




I PREFER SHARING BY: 

O (telling) about it 

O building something about it 
O acting it out Jf 



O writing about it /S 

O drawing or painting about it «*v, 
O talking to other people about it 



GT.242 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 17 

Learning Channels Inventory 128 

Place the numbers 1 , 2 or 3 in the box after each statement that best indicates your preference. 

(3 = Often, 2 = Sometimes, 1 = Seldom) 



1 . I can remember something best if I say it aloud. 

2. I prefer to follow written instructions rather than oral ones. 

3. When studying, I like to chew gum, snack and/or play with something. 

4. I remember things best when I see them written out. 

5. I prefer to learn through simulations, games and/or role playing. 

6. I enjoy learning by having someone explain things to me. 

7. I learn best from pictures, diagrams and charts. 

8. I enjoy working with my hands. 

9. I enjoy reading and I read quickly. 

10. I prefer to listen to the news on the radio rather than read it in the newspaper. 

11. I enjoy being near others. (I enjoy hugs, handshakes and touches.) 

12. I listen to the radio, tapes and recordings. 

13. When asked to spell a word, I simply see the word in my mind's eye. 

14. When learning new material, I find myself sketching, drawing and doodling. 

15. When I read silently, I say every word to myself. 

In order to get an indication of your learning preference, please add the numbers in the boxes 
together for the following statements. 

9 D 13 D = Total 

12 D 15 D = Total 
11 D 14 D = Total 



Visual Preference Score 


2D 


4 D 


7 n 


Auditory Preference Score 


iD 


6D 


io D 


K/T (Kinesthetic/Tactual) Score 


3 U 


sU 


sU 



The highest score indicates that my learning preference is 

Now that I know which is my dominant learning style I can learn better by 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 



GT.243 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 18 



Learning Styles: Teacher Observation Checklist 



129 



Sound: 

Does quality work during quiet work 

time 

Does quality work during regular work 

time 

Does quality work with music in 

background 

Complains when there is too much sound 

Has difficulty remaining quiet during 

quiet work time 

Makes sounds or noises while working 

Reminds others to be quiet while 

working 

Classroom Design: 

Has difficulty sitting properly 

Enjoys lying down while listening to 

stories 

Sits correctly during work periods 

Stands by work area during work periods 

Structure: 

Likes to complete projects independently 
Likes to complete projects step by step 
Keeps work area neat 
Tends to misplace supplies 

Social Tendencies: 

Likes to work or play with a group 

Likes to work or play with a teacher 

nearby 

Likes to work or play alone 

Creates opportunities to visit with 

teachers 

Responsibility and Persistence: 

Completes projects quickly and neatly 

Completes projects quickly but not 

neatly 

Completes projects slowly and neatly 

Completes projects slowly but not neatly 

Does not always complete projects 

Works best when given specific 

instructions 



Cleans up work area on completing task 

Needs reminding to clean up work area 

Is easily distracted while working on a 

project 

Remembers assignments 

Mobility: 

Leaves chair frequently during work 

periods 

Often makes excuses to move around the 

classroom 

Is extremely active during free play 

periods 

Motivation: 

Works best with much assurance from 

others 

Needs teacher feedback while working 

Works best when allowed to be creative 

Initiates projects 

Volunteers information about projects 

and discussion topics 

Perception: 

Enjoys books and filmstrips 

Is attentive during story time 

Likes to hear records or tapes during 

work time 

Remembers what others say 

Likes to visit classmates 
Enjoys playing with toys with small 

pieces 

Likes to draw or doodle 
Likes to move around during work or 

play 
Likes to create and react to play 

situations 



GT.244 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 19 



Modalities: Some Applications 



130 



One of the ways teachers can begin to accommodate learning differences is by planning 
lessons/units to accommodate the different ways students learn. 

Think about a skill, concept or process you will teach during the coming week and complete the 
following. 

1 . a. Identify and record what the intended learning will be. 



b. Write out an objective for your intended learning. 



2. a. Briefly explain how you will introduce your lesson. 



b. Go back and look at your introduction. Did you accommodate visual, auditory and 

kinesthetic learning modalities equally? If not, prepare what you might say or do to adjust 
your introduction. 



3. Brainstorm for activities you will include in your lesson to accommodate a variety of learning 
modalities. 



Visual Activities 


Auditory Activities 


Kinesthetic Activities 









4. Generate alternative ways to evaluate for modality accommodation within your lesson. 



Visual Evaluation 


Auditory Evaluation 


Kinesthetic Evaluation 









GT.245 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 20 

Tips for Parents 131 



General Tips 

Parents are valuable members of the IPP team. The following tips may enhance your participation 
in your child's educational program: 

G maintain ongoing contact with the school 

□ take an active role in decision making 

□ ask about other parents who may be in a similar situation; they can be a valuable resource 

□ ask about the services and resources available. 

Tips for Participating in the IPP Process 

Before the meeting: 

□ find out in advance what the agenda is 

G discuss your child's involvement in the process 
G jot down your comments and questions in advance 
G think about your goals and expectations for your child. 

At the meeting: 

G make time limits known if you have other commitments 

G provide samples of your child's work done at home if you think they could be useful 

G ask questions if anything is unclear to you 

G ask how you can help achieve some of these goals at home. 

Notes 



GT.246 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 21 

What Do You Consider Important About School Contacts? 132 



Parents have different ideas about the kind and amount of information about their child they want 
from school. The list below contains ways you and your child's teacher might communicate. 
Please circle a number to show how important each type of contact is to you. Then place the 
numbers 1, 2 or 3 next to the three ways you would most prefer to communicate with your child's 
teacher. 



Not Not 

applicable important 



Very 
important 



How much contact do you want to have with your child's teacher? 

G Daily G Once a week □ Once a month 
G Once a semester G Other (specify) 



Would you prefer 

G to initiate most of the contacts with your child's teacher? 
G the teacher to initiate contacts with you? 
Q both? 



Rank 



Written notes 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




School newsletters 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Parent/teacher/student 
conferences or IPP meetings 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Open house/student-led 
conferences 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Informal contacts 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




School council meetings 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Classroom observation 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Telephone calls 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Other (please specify): 







2 


3 


4 


5 


6 







GT.247 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 22 



IPP — Student Plan 



133 



Name: 
Date: 



Teacher: 



Grade/Class: 



School: 



Based on the student profile, check the planning options below that will be part of the student's 
individualized program plan. 



Appropriate Learning Levels 

Q Acceleration 

□ Telescoping 

□ Compacting 

Enrichment Opportunities 

Q Exploration activities 

□ Thinking, research and planning skills 

□ Individual study option 

What are the intended student outcomes? 



Curriculum Differentiation 

□ Content 
Q Processes 

□ Products 

Other 

□ Special programs 
O Mentoring 

□ Apprenticeship 



How will the outcomes be assessed? 



Criteria for evaluation of outcomes (set with student). 



Members of planning team: 



Review Date: 



GT.248 



Section 3: Identification 



Appendix 23 

The Crossover Profile 134 



Recognizing that no one student will fit the complete list, the composite consists of both gifted and 
LD characteristics. 

Like other gifted students, the typical crossover student will: 

• intellectually approach or reach the gifted range (in this group, 120 IQ or above Full Scale IQ; 130 IQ or 
above in the strongest factor. Verbal Comprehension or Perceptual Organization using Wechsler scores) 

• have more interest and ability in pursuing broad-based, thematic topics than in remembering and dealing 
with details. - '. . . the harder the task, the better they do; it's the easy work they can't master" 
(Silverman. 1989). 

• be somewhat more of an intuitive dreamer than a practically oriented thinker; creativity or problem- 
solving ability may be exhibited in a specific area of interest 

• exhibit a sophisticated sense of humour 

• visualize well and do well in areas requiring this ability; e.g., mathematics, especially geometry; art 

• be highly sensitive and base decisions on personal feeling and human need rather than on logic as a 
young child, but may become more logical in adolescence 

• have a high readiness to learn and a great interest in learning when topics are presented in a challenging 
manner. 

Like students of average ability with learning disabilities, the typical crossover student will: 

• have an uneven intellectual pattern on the Wechsler Intelligence Tests with verbal comprehension and 
perceptual organization scores superior to those tapping attentional or sequencing abilities 

• have an uneven academic pattern with strengths most likely in mathematics or content areas and 
weaknesses in the language arts areas — especially written language — but variations exist 

• have written language difficulties including poor handwriting, poor mechanics and difficulty organizing 
content 

• need remediation for skills deficits (but will respond better to teaching in context than to isolated skill 
building) 

• be distractible in large groups and have difficulty completing work because of that distractibility 

• have difficulty organizing time and materials, often resulting in forgetting or incompletion of homework 
or need of excessive time for completion 

• need medical monitoring because he or she may benefit from medication and/or behavioural intervention 
for ADHD 

• need more time to process language and respond than would be expected of someone with high 
intellectual capabilities 

• lack some social skills and common sense decision-making ability 

• sometimes exhibit visual or auditory perceptual deficits or unusual visual sensitivity to light 

• be less successful when confronted with input from multiple sources or with tasks that require the 
integration of multiple skills. 



GT.249 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

Appendix 24 

Faculty/Administrator Nomination Form 
for Artistically Gifted and Talented Students 135 

As you read the characteristics below, list the names of those students who first come to mind. A 
student may be named more than once. 

1 . Students who show interest in a particular art form. 

2. Students who spend time pursuing an art form. 

3. Students who demonstrate good fine motor or gross motor co-ordination. 

4. Students who have good memory, unusual ability to store and use information. 

5. Students who are willing to try new activities. 

6. Students who follow through on work that initially excites them. 

7. Students who can express feelings in/through an art form. 

8. Students who are keen observers, sensitive to their environment, see the unusual and what 
others may overlook. 

9. Students who create unique responses to given stimuli. 

1 0. Students who can elaborate and extend the ideas of others. 

VISUAL ARTS DRAMA MUSIC DANCE 



Faculty/Administrator Date 



COMMENTS: 



GT.250 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

Appendix 25 

Student Nomination Form 136 
What Do You Know About Your Classmates? 

Please write down the name of the classmate you would choose for each item. The classmate does 
not have to be someone in the class you are in now; he or she may be someone in one of your other 
classes. You can name a person more than once or a different person for each item. 

1 . Twenty years from now, who do you think will be a famous . . . 

a) actor 

b) artist 



c) dancer 



d) musician 



2. Who likes to create plays? 



3. Who always is willing to try something new? 



4. Who has the most unusual ideas? 



5. Who enjoys sketching? 



6. Who enjoys role playing? 



7. Who enjoys creative movement? 



GT.251 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



Appendix 26 



Self-nomination Form for Artistically 
Gifted and Talented Students 137 



Student Name 
Grade 



School 



District 



Parent(s) Name 

Address 

Date 



Our school plans to offer challenging studies for artistically gifted and talented students. If you 
would like to be considered for participation, please answer the following. 

1. Have you had an exciting experience in dance, drama, music or visual arts? Describe the event. 
Describe how you felt about the experience. 



2. What would you like to learn in these special studies? 



3. What lessons and activities do you participate in after school? 



GT.252 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

Appendix 27 

Interview 138 
Grades 1-12 



The interview provides insights that can be ascertained only through interaction. This permits the 
adjudicator to use professional judgment during the evaluation. 

It is necessary to adopt a friendly, relaxed and helpful posture to applicants who are likely to be 
nervous and unable to demonstrate their best effort. The student auditioning at the end of the day is 
entitled to the same degree of attention given the student who appeared first in the morning. In all 
fairness to the applicants, each should be shown the same degree of attention and consideration in 
addition to the full allotment of interview time. 

Never say anything to an applicant that may lead to a presumption of acceptance or rejection. 
Ideally an adjudicator's demeanour should be supportive and there should be no comments that 
predict an outcome. 

It is wise not to discuss anything about audition requirements, standards or criteria with students, 
their families or other interested parties. 

Adjudicators should arrive sufficiently ahead of the first scheduled audition to have time to go over 
preliminaries. On each applicant's visual arts interview rating sheet, indicate the score, together 
with at least one important comment which served as a basis for the evaluation. 

During the interview, a directive approach (a predetermined set of questions) should be combined 
with a non-directive approach, which allows occasional deviation. 

It is recommended that two categories of questions be developed. One category should have four 
questions dealing with knowledge and skills of the art area. This category should be rated on a 
point system. The other category should have six questions that cover attitudes about the area. It 
should be rated on a four-point scale from below average (1) to outstanding (4). 

During the interview, the committee should discuss with the student his or her school, individual 
and/or community-related activities. 



GT.253 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



Visual Arts Audition Rating Sheet 139 

Final Screening 

Grades 1-6 



Student 



Grade School District 

Code Date 



District Committee Chairman 



This form is to be used in rating visual arts samples. 

ORIGINALITY 

The student has represented an imaginary subject or has combined real forms in an 
imaginative way. Rate the sample from lowest ( 1 ) to highest (4). 

COMPOSITION 

For each item below, rate the product. Average = 1 or Above Average = 2 

Balance: The shapes, lines, colours and forms are balanced symmetrically 
or asymmetrically. 

Rhythm: Shapes, lines, colours and forms repeat or contrast with one another 
to create movement or stability, unity and variety. 

Colour: Colours create interest through harmony, repetition and contrast. 
Colour usage is well-balanced. 

Line: Line quality is varied and appropriate for representation of the subject. 

Texture: Texture has been created using a variety of techniques. 

EXPRESSIVE QUALITY 

The artwork communicates a personal response to the subject selected. Rate the 
sample from lowest (1) to highest (4). 

ELABORATION 

The student includes many details which elaborate upon the theme and add 
interest. Rate the sample from lowest (1) to highest (4). 

OVERALL IMPRESSION — Rate the sample from lowest (1) to highest (4). 

TOTAL 



GT.254 



Appendix 28 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



Appendix 29 



Drama Audition 140 

Final Screening 

Grades 1-3 

The audition contains two tasks. These tasks should be rated by the district committee. 
The rating sheet below is provided to record the student's score. 

TASK ONE 

Illustrate an interpretation of a particular person going through a specific action. 
(Example: A small child playing with a ball.) 

TASK TWO 

Have the child tell a favourite story. 



Rating Sheet 



Student 

Grade 

Code 



School 
Date 



District 



Committee Chairman 



This form is to be used in rating tasks. Each item listed below should be rated on a four-point scale. 



Rate 1 

Lowest 

TASK ONE 

Creativity 


4 

Highest 


Projection 


Movement 




Use of Detail 


Originality 






TASK TWO 
Articulation 




Expression 


Characterization 




Projection 


Creativity 






TOTAL 







GT.255 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



Appendix 30 



Drama Audition 141 

Final Screening 

Grades 4-6 

The audition contains two tasks. These tasks should be rated by the district committee. 
The rating sheet below is provided to record the student's score. 

TASK ONE 

Illustrate an interpretation of a particular person going through a specific action. 
(Example: A very old person walking.) 

TASK TWO 

Give a memorized presentation of approximately one minute. 



Rating Sheet 



Student 

Grade 

Code 



School 
Date 



District 



Committee Chairman 



This form is to be used in rating tasks. Each item listed below should be rated on a four-point scale. 



Rate 1 

Lowest 

TASK ONE 

Characterization 


4 

Highest 


Movement 


Creativity 




Projection 


TASK TWO 
Articulation 




Projection 


Expression 






TOTAL 







GT.256 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



Appendix 31 



Drama Audition 142 

Specific Screening Rating Sheet 

Grades 7-12 



Student 



Grade School District 

Code Date 



Committee Chairman 



This form is to be used in rating drama tasks. Each item listed below should be rated on a 
four-point scale. 

Rate 1 4 

Lowest Highest 



MONOLOGUE ONE 
Articulation 
Characterization 
Creativity 
Expression 
Originality 
Projection 



MONOLOGUE TWO 
Articulation 
Characterization 
Creativity 
Expression 
Originality 
Projection 

TOTAL 



GT.257 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

Appendix 32 

Drama Audition 

Final Screening 143 

Grades 7-12 

The audition contains three tasks. These tasks should be rated by the district committee. 
A rating sheet is provided to record the student's score. 

TASK ONE 

Each student will come prepared with two, 1-2 minute monologues of contrasting styles by two 
different authors (monologues should not exceed two minutes). Participants will use the 
monologues prepared for specific screening. 

TASK TWO 

Each student will improvise a 1-2 minute monologue/narrative. 

TASK THREE 

Each student will come prepared to create a 30-second mimicry of a person, an animal or a 
character. 



GT.258 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

Appendix 33 

Gilbert's Concepts and Descriptors 144 

Use these charts as models for posters in the studio. Choose concepts and words to fit the curriculum. 

The Concept of Space 

Place self space (personal space), general space (room space) 

Size big (far reach), medium (mid-reach), small (near reach) 

Level high, middle, low 

Direction forward, backward, right, left, up, down 

Pathway curved, straight, zig zag 

Focus single focus, multi-focus 

The Concept of Time 

Speed fast, medium, slow 

Rhythm pulse, pattern, breath, accent 

The Concept of Force 

Energy sharp (sudden), smooth (sustained) 

Weight strong, light 

Flow free (continuous, off-balance), bound (controlled, on-balance) 

The Concept of Body 

Parts head, neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, elbows, hands, fingers, pelvis, trunk, spine, 

legs, knees, feet, toes, heels, etc. 
Relationships near, far, around, through, above, below, beside, between, in, out, on, off, 

together, apart, alone, connected, mirror, shadow 
Shapes curved, straight, angular, twisted, symmetrical, asymmetrical 

Balance off-balance, on-balance 

The Concept of Movement 

Locomotor walk, run, leap, jump, hop, gallop, slide, skip, crawl, roll, waltz run, step-hop, 

schottische, two-step, grapevine, polka, etc. 
Nonlocomotor bend, twist, stretch, swing, push, pull, fall, melt, sway, turn, spin, dodge, kick, 

poke, lift, carve, curl, lunge, wiggle, swirl, slash, punch, flick, dab, float, glide, 

press, wring, etc. 

The Concept of Form 

Recurring theme theme in variation, cannon, round repetition 

ABA A = one phrase or idea, B = a different phrase or idea 

Abstract nonrepresentational, geometric form 

Narrative in the form of a story, representational 

Suite three sections: moderate beginning, slow centre, fast ending 

Broken Form unrelated ideas, often used for humour 



GT.259 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



Hankin's Basic Movement Concepts 



145 



Appendix 34 



Body 


Space 


Quality 


Body Parts: 
Head - eyes, nose, ears, 

mouth 
Trunk - pelvis, chest, spine 
Limbs - feet, legs, knees, 

hands, arms, elbows 

Some things body parts can 
do: 
Move in isolation or in 

concert with one or more 

parts 

Lead the rest of the body 
through space 

Doodle (draw designs in the 
air with selected parts) 

Move through a range of 
motion (flexion, 
extension, rotation, 
ab/abduction) 

Support the weight of the 
body (on the hands, on the 
seat, on the hands and 
feet, etc.) 


Range 
near - far 
large - small 

Direction 
up - down 
forward - back 
side - side 
diagonal 

Floor Patterns 
straight 
curved 
zig zag 
figure eight 

Body Shape 
narrow - wide 
big - small 
folded - unfolded 
rounded - angular 

Volume 
Creating the illusion of 
3-D in space 


controlled - free 

forceful - delicate - heavy 

slow - fast 

sharp - smooth 

A few familiar words that 
suggest movement quality: 

swinging 
undulating 

melting 
shivering 

floating 

yawning 

twitching 

pressing 

punching 

falling 

rushing 
lingering 
wriggling 



GT.260 



S ection 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 

Appendix 35 

Rubrics Used to Assess and Evaluate Dance Product 146 

DESIGN 



5 


Special attention has been paid to spatial patterns, levels, phrasing and dynamics with respect 
to the relationship of the dancers to each other and their environment. Excellent use of 
movement sequences create a well-defined visual composition. 


4 


The composition shows effective use of spatial patterns, levels, phrasing and dynamics. 
Movement sequences flow well together and create a unified final product. 


3 


Good use of spatial patterns and levels. Awareness of dynamics, phrasing and flow of 
movement sequences is demonstrated. 


2 


The work shows an understanding of the concepts of design, such as levels, patterns, use of 
space and flow of movement. Attention must be paid to detail in the final presentation. 


1 


There is evidence of flow of movement, awareness of stage space, use of levels and spatial 
patterns. More planning and preparation time is needed to create the final product. 


PERFORMANCE AND PRESENTATION 


5 


The presentation is exciting to watch. Through special attention to expression, focus and 
mood, audience attention is engaged and sustained during the performance. 


4 


The presentation is polished and effective. Expression, focus and mood entertain the 
audience and convey the meaning of the work. 


3 


The presentation is entertaining and well-rehearsed. Evidence of attention to mood and 
expression are demonstrated. 


2 


The presentation is complete. There is some evidence of mood and expression portrayed in 
the work. The group needs to focus and clearly establish their connection with the audience. 


1 


More rehearsal time is necessary to create the final product. Movement is tentative. It is 
important to develop a sense of confidence and security for the performer and the audience, 
so as to perform convincingly. 



GT.261 



Section 4: Characteristics of Creatively Gifted Students in the Visual and Performing Arts 



TECHNIQUE 



5 


The performers clearly demonstrate strong mastery of dance technique and style. All steps 
demonstrate excellent body awareness and control of movement. All steps are performed 
with energy and dynamics. 


4 


The performers demonstrate good dance technique and style. All steps show evidence of 
body awareness and control. The performers are attempting challenging work to improve 
their dance style and technique. 


3 


Most steps show evidence of body awareness and control. Consistent effort is demonstrated 
throughout the composition. 


2 


Awareness of style and control of movement is developing. Some steps show evidence of 
body awareness and technical progress. Continue to work on performing steps with sustained 
energy throughout the composition. 


1 


There is evidence of an understanding of dance technique. More rehearsal time is needed to 
master the style and control of the steps. 


CREATIVITY/ORIGINALITY 


5 


The theme is innovative and original. The composition expresses imagination and creativity. 


4 


The composition displays imagination, creativity and a commitment to the style of the music. 
Theme is clearly expressed. 


3 


The dancers are attempting challenging work. Original ideas are shown. Theme and style are 
evident throughout the composition. 


2 


Moments of cohesiveness between style and theme are displayed in the work. Connecting 
movements show continuity. Continue to work on developing original ideas. 


1 


Further exploration of creative ideas is encouraged. Pay careful attention to the development 
of a theme in your composition. 



GT.262 



Sections: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Independent Study and Research 



•17 



Appendix 36 



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STudy & 

RESEARCH 



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GT.263 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 37 



Student Projects 



148 



For primary students: 

• Draw or trace pictures that represent learning onto 
transparencies. Narrate information to listeners as 
your pictures are shown. 

• Use a graphic map or chart that the teacher has used 
in other settings. Examples: story map, character 
chart, advance organizer. 

• Survey others; transfer your data to a chart or 
graph. 

• Create a game for others to play to learn the same 
information. 

• Create a mobile, diorama, display or other visual 
representation of your data. 

• Create dictionaries for specific topics or translate 
words into another language. 

• Draw attribute webs. Write brief topic ideas on the 
spokes of the web. Example: 




For students in all other grades: 

• Choose an idea from the primary section above. 

• Make a filmstrip on blank filmstrip material; 
narrate. 

• Create a puppet show and present it. 

• Create a radio or television broadcast or video 
production. 

• Hold a panel discussion, round-robin discussion or 
debate. 

• Write a diary or journal of an important historical 
event or person; write a speech a person might have 
made at the time. 

• Create a timeline of events: personal, historical, 
social, etc. 



• Working with several other students, create a panel 
discussion about a topic of a certain historical time 
period or about how different historical figures 
might react to a current problem. 

Create an invention to fill a personal or social need. 

Present biographical information dressed as the 
person investigated. 

Write a song, rap, poem, story, advertisement or 
jingle. 

Create a travel brochure for another country or 
planet. 

Create an imaginary country from papier-mache. 
Locate essential features. 

Make a model; describe its parts and the functions 
of each. 

Create a chart or poster to represent synthesis of 
information. 

Write a script for a play or mock trial. 

Write a journal of time spent and activities 
completed with a mentor in the community. 

Collect materials from a lobbying or public service 
agency; summarize information. (TIP: Use the 
Encyclopedia of Associations found in the 
reference section of most public libraries.) 

Write to people in other places about specific 
topics; synthesize their responses. 

Create a learning centre for teachers to use in their 
classrooms. 

Rewrite a story, setting it in another time period, 
after researching probable differences. 

Gather political cartoons from several sources; 
analyze the cartoonists' ideas. 

Critique a film, book, television show or video 
program; write an editorial and send it to your local 
newspaper. 

Write a how-to manual for those who need 
instruction on how to do or use something. 

Contact publishers to find out how to get something 
you've written published. 

Come up with your own ideas. 



GT.264 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 38 



Topic Suggestions 



149 



The following list represents a multitude of starting points for study by your students. Each topic 
can extend into other fields depending on the interests and abilities of the student. Use these 
suggestions when looking for new and different challenges for exploration. 



Possible Topics 




advertising 


creativity 


agriculture 


crime 


air 


criminology 


airplanes 


crystology 


animals 


cultures 


anthropology 




archaeology 


dams 


architecture 


dance 


art 


death 


astronomy 


dentistry 


atoms 


deserts 


automobiles 


diaries 




dinosaurs 


babies 


dreams 


balloons 


drugs use/abuse 


banking 




biology 


ecology 


boats 


economics 


books 


education 


bottling 


electricity 


Braille 


electronics 


bugs 


energy 


buildings 


engineering 




entertainment 


cartooning/comics 




castles 


fairy tales 


chemistry 


farms 


civil wars 


fashion 


commerce 


fiction 


communication 


film making 


computers 


food 


cooking 


forests 


co-operation 


fossils 


cosmetology 


future 


countries 





garbage 


kinesiology 


gender 


knights of castles 


genealogy 




genetics 


lakes 


geography 


land 


geology 


languages 


giants 


lasers 


gold 


law 


growth gems 


leadership 


gun powder 


legal system 


guns 


leisure 




life cycle 


handicapped 


linguistics 


history 




holidays/celebrations 


magic 


holograms 


manufacturing 


humans 


maps 




mathematics 


ice age 


medicine 


ice cream 


migration 


ichthyology 


military 


image creation 


miming 


industrial 


minerals 


revolution 


mines 


industry 


money 


instruments 


monsters 


(music/mechanical) 


morals 


inventions 


mountains 


inventors 


music 




mythology 


jail 




jewels 


Native people 




navigation 



GT.265 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



oceanology 


poverty 


oil 


power 


opera 


print 


oriental rugs 


psychology 


ornithology 






railroads 


paper 


religion 


(pulp & paper) 


renaissance 


perception 


retail products 


pets 


revolutions 


philosophy 


rituals 


phobias 


rivers 


photography 


rocketry 


physics 


roles 


pirates 


royal families 


plants 




plastics 


science 


plays 


sculpture 


(writing & acting) 


seismology 


poetry 


shelter 


politics 


sign language 


pollution 


signs 



social system 

society 

space 

sports 

stock market 

stress 

surveying 

swamps 

technology 

television 

theory 

thermodynamics 

thinking 

time 

tools 

transplants 

transportation 

travel 

ultrasonics 

uniforms 

union 



ventriloquism 

Vikings 

violence 

walled cities 

war 

water 

weapons 

weather 

x-rays 

zoology 



GT.266 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Student Daily Log 



150 



Appendix 39 



I completed: 


Date: 
Name: 

I must do: 






















Evaluation of my day: 


I need: 



























GT.267 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 40 



Student-Teacher project Evaluation Form 



51 



Students and teachers evaluate a project. When both parties have finished the evaluation, a 
discussion of findings is usually beneficial. 



Student-Teacher Project Evaluation Form 






Name: Date: 








Student's Evaluation Form Circle One Choice 






Poor Fair 


Average 


Good 


Great 


I was pleased with my topic 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


Good choice of questions 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


I used many resources 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


I made good use of resources 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


My planning was good 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


I used time wisely 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


I presented my project 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


I shared my product with a real 1 2 


3 


4 


5 


audience 








1 2 


3 
3 
3 

3 


4 
4 

4 

4 


5 
5 

5 

5 


1 2 


1 2 


Overall Evaluation 1 2 


Knowing what I know now. the parts of this study I would chang 


e are: 






I enjoyed most: 


Student signature: 


Check here if additional comments have been written on 


the back of this form. 







GT.268 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Student-Teacher Project Evaluation Form 



152 



Appendix 41 



Student-Teacher Project Evaluation Form 






Name: 


Date 








Teacher's Evaluation Form 




Circle One Choice 






Poor 


Fair 


Average 


Good 


Great 


Appropriate choice of topic 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Well-planned questions 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Used variety of resources 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Good use of resources 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Planning skills 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Use of time 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Presentation 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Audience/Outlets 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




2 
2 

2 

2 


3 
3 
3 

3 


4 
4 
4 

4 


5 
5 
5 

5 






Overall Evaluation 1 


Possible changes or improvements to consider: 










Particular strengths: 















Teacher signature: 



Check here if additional comments have been written on the back of this form. 



GT.269 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 42 

Independent Study Evaluation Form 153 



Project Title: 

Name: Date: 

1. What do you like best about your project? Why? 



2. What were the most difficult steps? How did you overcome these difficulties? 



3. Name some new skills you learned while working on this project. 



4. In what ways was your plan of action reasonable? In what ways might you have improved 
your plan? 



5. Who else was interested in your project? With whom did you share your results? How did 
you do this? 



6. Do you have unanswered questions about the topic? Do you have ideas for new projects? 



7. Overall, how successful was your study? Write additional comments or questions on the 
back of this page. 



GT.270 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 43 

Primary Self-Evaluation 154 



This open-ended form can be used in the primary grades for all types of activity. The student 
and/or teacher reads each item. The pupil draws a rating face. 



Primary Self-Evaluation 

Name: Grade: Date: 



How successful was I in 
identifying a topic of interest to me? 


© 


© 


© 


planning my study? 








locating and utilizing a variety of resources? 


* 






organizing my information? 








using what I learned? 








sharing my experience? 









What did I do in this experience that I've never done before? 



What do I feel particularly good about? 



What would I change if I could? 



Did I learn anything that will help me in the future? 



Other ideas 1 have 



GT.271 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 44 



Independent Study Contract 



55 



Independent Study Contract 

The following terms are agreed to by teacher and student. 

The student may learn the key concepts or the information described on the study 

guide independently. 

The student must demonstrate competency with any assessment activity in order to 

continue this same arrangement for the rest of this unit. 

The student must participate in selected group activities when one day's notice is 

given by the teacher. 

The student agrees to complete an independent project by 



to share with the class. (date) 

A description of the project follows: 



The student agrees to work on the selected project according to the following guidelines 
while the remainder of the class is involved with the teacher. 



Teacher's signature: 
Student's signature: 



GT.272 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 45 

Independent Study Project Evaluation Contract 156 



Independent Study Project Evaluation Contract 

For a grade of "B" 

1 . Use secondary sources to prepare your project. 

2. Use a standard format. 

For a grade of "A" 

1 . Use primary sources (interviews, surveys, diaries, journals, etc.). 

2. Really get into your topic. Produce a real-life project. 

3. Present your information to an appropriate audience. 

4. Use a unique presentation format. Ideas: appear as your subject, create an original 
filmstrip, video, etc. 

Use this space to describe your project: 



Teacher's signature: 
Student's signature: 



GT.273 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Learning Contract 



157 



Appendix 46 



Learning Contract 

CHAPTER: 



NAME: 



Page/Concept ^ Page/Concept s Page/Concept 



ENRICHMENT OPTIONS: 



Special Instructions 



YOUR IDEA: 



WORKING CONDITIONS 



Teacher's Signature: 



Student's Signature: 



GT.274 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Appendix 47 



The Compactor 



158 



on C 



a 



B ^ 



Qi 'C <u 



UJ « <u 



4) sj — 

*S •— ^ 



CJ 



o 

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GT.275 



Section 5: Strategies for Designing and Implementing Instruction 



Mentorship Contract 



Between 
and 



Appendix 48 



(student) 



(mentor). 



Description/Objective(s) of project: 



Activities planned to achieve objectives: 



Product and/or potential audience for project: 



Timing: 
From 



To 



(expected completion date) 



Meeting times: 
Day 



Hour 



Place 



We have reviewed the responsibility list that pertains to our role and agree to work within the 
guidelines. 



Signatures: 

Student 
Mentor 
Teacher 



Project Co-ordinator 
*Parent(s) 



Date 

Date 

Date 

Date 

Date 



*The parent signature authorizes that the foregoing contract has been reviewed and permission is granted for its 
implementation. 



GT.276 



SECTION 8: OTHER TEACHING RESOURCES 



This listing is not to be construed as an explicit or implicit departmental approval for use of the 
resources listed. These titles are provided as a service only to assist school authorities to identify 
resources that contain potentially useful ideas. The responsibility to evaluate these resources prior 
to selection rests with the user, in accordance with any existing local policy. 

Resources listed in this section can be ordered from the publishers. See Section 9, pages 
GT.288-290. 



Classroom Strategies 

Algebra magic tricks: algecadabra! 
(Volumes 1 and 2) (1992, 1994) by 
Ronald Edwards. Pacific Grove, CA: 
Critical Thinking Press & Software. 
ISBN: Volume 1: 0-89455-^61-1; 
Volume 2: 0-89455-509-x. 
Grades 6-12. 

Students are shown how to perform a 
number trick and then challenged to 
discover the mathematical concept behind 
the trick. The activities involve problem 
solving using algebra. It also provides 
suggestions for further investigations. Very 
challenging material. 

Brainstorms and blueprints: teaching 
library research as a thinking process 
(1988) by Barbara K. Stripling & Judy 
M. Pitts. Englewood, CO: Libraries 
Unlimited Inc. ISBN 0-87287-638-1. 
Grades 10-12. 

This book provides strategies for using 
higher level thinking processes to enrich 
research projects at the secondary level. 
Lesson plans are included for all steps of the 
research process, including analyzing, 
challenging, transforming and synthesizing 



information, and creating and presenting a 
final product. Also includes preparing 
students in the classroom and weaving the 
research process into the curriculum. Could 
be adapted for upper elementary and junior 
high. 

The Child as critic: teaching literature in 
elementary and middle schools ( 1 99 1 ) 
(third edition) by Glenna Davis Sloan. 
New York, NY: Teachers College Press. 
ISBN 0-8077-3156-0. ECS-Grade 12. 

This book describes the use of literature to 
develop literacy. It describes Northrop 
Frye's philosophy of universal patterns of 
literature and how these patterns can be 
taught to help children become literary 
critics. Included are specific classroom 
strategies and examples, an extensive list of 
literary works and a "Resources for 
Teachers" section which will help teachers 
locate appropriate books for their 
classrooms. 

Please note: Some individuals and 
communities may not approve of the 
comparison between the use of the Bible 
and the use of mythology. Also, the 
resource includes references to some issues 
which may be controversial; e.g., abduction, 
death, rape. 



GT.277 



Creative puzzles of the world (1995) by 
Pieter van Delft & Jack Botermans. 
Berkeley, CA: Key Curriculum Press. 
ISBN 1-55953-116-9. 
Grades 1-12. 

This book contains hundreds of puzzles 
from all over the world, including 
geometric, match stick, construction, 
domino, string, mazes, number and logic, 
positioning puzzles and many more. The 
difficulty ranges from simple puzzles 
requiring only paper and pencil to complex 
puzzles that require hours of construction. 
An answer key and background information 
on each type of puzzle is provided. 

Cultural connections: using literature to 
explore world cultures with children 
(1993) by Ron Jobe. Markham, ON: 
Pembroke Publishers Ltd. 
ISBN 1-55138-007-2. 
Grades 3-7. 

This is a guide for using literature to extend 
or enrich students' experiences and 
understandings of cultures other than their 
own. It includes detailed summaries and 
bibliographies based on themes, such as 
war, immigration, Aboriginal peoples. It 
provides useful suggestions for checking 
cultural authenticity of literature. 

Curriculum compacting: the complete guide 
to modifying the regular curriculum for 
high ability students (1992) by Sally M. 
Reis, Deborah E. Burns & Joseph 
Renzulli. Storrs, CT: Creative Learning 
Press, Inc. ISBN 0-936386-63-0. 
ECS-Grade 12. 

This book describes a procedure used to 
streamline the regular curriculum for 
students who are capable of mastering it at a 
faster pace. It includes the history and 
rationale of curriculum compacting, an 
overview of the procedure, record keeping 



and enrichment options, challenges, 
recommendations and questions. Each 
chapter contains a compacted version which 
summarizes the important concepts. A 
video and guide are also available. 

Developing higher order thinking in the 
content areas K-12 (1993) by Frances S. 
OTuel & Ruth K. Bullard. Pacific 
Grove, CA: Critical Thinking Press & 
Software. ISBN 0-89455^99-9. 
ECS-Grade 12. 

This book is a basic but comprehensive 
overview of theories and activities for 
teaching higher level thinking skills. It 
includes a variety of models, such as 
Bloom's taxonomy, metacognition, 
problem-solving, creativity, evaluation and 
suggestions for planning integrated units 
across curriculum areas, such as social 
studies, language arts, etc. It also includes 
chapters on student research, curriculum and 
instruction, technology and working with 
parents. 

Exploring texts: the role of discussion and 
writing in the teaching and learning of 
literature (1993) edited by George E. 
Newell & Russel K. Durst. Norwood, 
MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers 
Inc. ISBN 0-926842-24-2. 
Grades 8-12. 

This book contains a number of articles 
dealing with literary understanding, the role 
of discussion, reader-response theory and 
using writing to assess literary 
understanding. 



GT.278 



Gifted and talented children in the regular 
classroom ( 1 997) by E. Paul Torrance & 
Dorothy A. Sisk. Buffalo, NY: Creative 
Education Foundation Press. 
ISBN 0-930222-06-7. ECS-Grade 12. 

This book provides clear and concise 
guidelines for serving gifted and talented 
students in the regular classroom. It 
addresses the description of gifted children, 
their needs, methods for identifying them, 
and various curriculum ideas and methods 
for educating them. The methods of 
instruction are designed to involve all 
children, both the gifted and the non-gifted, 
in putting forth their best efforts and 
attaining their highest potential. 

Imagination express series (CD-ROM). 
Redmond, WA: Edmark Corporation. 
Grades 1-6. 

Students can create their own electronic 
books, fiction or non-fiction, by choosing 
backgrounds, adding characters, objects, 
sound effects, animation and recorded 
narration. A fact book contains information 
which can be incorporated into their work. 
A collection of story ideas is also provided. 
Text tools are available for writing and 
editing. Books can be printed. 

Titles in the series include: 

• Destination: Neighborhood 

• Destination: Rainforest 

• Destination: Ocean 

• Destination: Castle 

• Destination: Time Trip, USA 

• Destination: Pyramids. 

The school version includes a teacher's 
binder which contains a program 
description, technical information and cross- 
curricular activities. 



In search of authority: an introductory 
guide to literary theory (1996) (second 
edition) by Stephen Bonnycastle. 
Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press. 
ISBN 1-55111-083-0. ECS-Grade 8. 

This book is an engaging introduction to 
literary theory. It discusses recently 
developed theories in a way that makes 
them accessible and useful for teachers at all 
levels. 

Infusing the teaching of critical and creative 
thinking into content instruction: a 
lesson design handbook for the 
elementary grades ( 1 994) by Robert J. 
Swartz & Sandra Parks. Pacific Grove, 
CA: Critical Thinking Press & 
Software. ISBN 0-89455^181-6. 
Grades 1-6. 

A comprehensive and detailed guide to the 
teaching of thinking skills. This resource 
has numerous graphic organizers that are 
helpful for integrating creative and critical 
thinking skills into the regular curriculum. 
Includes model lessons in many subject 
areas, lesson plan forms and reproducible 
thinking maps. 

Literature and writing workshop (1992, 
1993, 1994). New York, NY: 
Scholastic Inc. Grades 3-9. 

A program of genre study and literature- 
based writing which includes individual and 
group pre- and post-reading activities, such 
as discussion, character analysis, story 
mapping. The activities challenge students 
to explore the specific genre in depth with 
emphasis on higher level thinking, such as 
analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Students 
are then challenged to emulate the elements 
of the genre in their own writing. Each set 
includes a teacher's resource guide and 
eight student books. 



GT.279 



The series explores 1 5 genres: 
adventure fiction 

ISBN (student book) 0-590^9534-8 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49524-0 
autobiography 

ISBN (student book) 0-590^19539-9 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49529-1 
biographies 

ISBN (student book) 0-590^9294-2 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590^9295-0 
historical fiction 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49300-0 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590^19301-9 
humourous fiction 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49298-5 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49299-3 
lyric poetry 

ISBN (student book) 0-590^19304-3 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590^19305-1 
mysteries 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49262^1 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49263-2 
myths and legends 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49306-X 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590^19307-8 
narrative poetry 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49538-0 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49528-3 
nature writing 

ISBN (student book) 0-590^19541-0 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49531-3 
newswriting 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49535-6 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49525-9 
plays 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49540-2 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49530-5 
realistic fiction 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49296-9 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49297-7 
science fiction 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49537-2 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590^19527-5 
tall tales 

ISBN (student book) 0-590-49536-4 
ISBN (teacher guide) 0-590-49526-7 



Teachers are cautioned not to share the story 
"The Binnacle Boy" (Exploring Historical 
Fiction and Investigating Mysteries) with 
students unless more background 
information and critical thinking exercises 
are offered than the guide provides. 

Mathematical mystery tour: higher-thinking 
math tasks (1988) by Mark H. Wahl. 
Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press. 
ISBN 0-913705-26-8. Grades 5-12. 

This collection of activities examines 
patterns in nature based on the mathematical 
principles of the fibonacci numbers and the 
golden ratio. The activities integrate a 
number of subject areas, such as history, 
writing, botany, astronomy and zoology. 
Each set of activities includes a teacher's 
guide which provides background notes and 
strategies for leading students through the 
activities. Suggestions are made for 
extension and home projects. 

MayaQuest the mystery trail (CD-ROM). 
Minneapolis, MN: MECC. 
Grades 4-12. 

Students are detectives and explorers inside 
the history, culture and geography of 
Central America. Along the trip to the 
Maya ruins, students use high-tech tools to 
solve mysteries, navigate wild bike paths 
and save priceless Mayan artifacts from 
being stolen. Based on an actual bike trek 
through Central America. Includes over a 
thousand photos, video clips, sound effects 
and music. Also includes interactive 
photography and 3-D renderings. 



GT.280 



Multiculturalism in mathematics, science 
and technology: reading and activities 
(no year) by Thorn Alcoze. Reading, 
MA: Addison-Wesley. 
ISBN 0-201-29595-4. Grades 5-12. 

This resource contains readings and 
activities which could be used to challenge 
and enrich student explorations in 
mathematics and science beyond the regular 
curriculum. The 37 units focus on 
individuals or groups from a variety of 
cultures who have made significant 
contributions to science and mathematics. 

Each unit includes a reading, questions for 
critical thinking, illustrations and student 
activities, and explorations that require 
higher level thinking. It also includes 
teacher notes and suggestions for using the 
units. 

Operation magic tricks (1995) by Ronald 
Edwards. Pacific Grove, CA: Critical 
Thinking Press & Software. 
ISBN 0-89455-632-0. Grades 2-7. 

Students are shown how to perform a 
number trick and then are challenged to 
discover the mathematical concept behind 
the trick. The activities involve problem 
solving and higher-level thinking as well as 
basic mathematical skills. 

Science sleuth: 1 & 2 (CD-ROM). 
Minneapolis, MN: MECC. 
Grade 3-12. 

A series of real-world science mysteries 
which students solve by analyzing 
searchable resources, conducting 
experiments and recording their findings in 
an electronic notebook. Resources include 
videos, articles, photos and more. Students 
research data, develop critical thinking and 
problem-solving skills. 



Sim series (CD-ROM). Walnut Creek, CA: 
Maxis. Grades 1-12. 

This series allows students to build their 
own communities or structures. As their 
creation grows, variables change and require 
further problem solving. Complex and 
challenging. Titles include: 

Sim Ant — Students experience life as an 
ant, including fighting for queen and colony, 
defending the hill from predators, facing 
hordes of enemy ants and more. All ages. 

Sim City 2000 — Students design, build and 
customize their own city. All ages. 

Sim Copter — Students fly various missions 
in 30 pre-built cities, including fire fighting, 
chasing criminals, transporting injured Sim 
citizens and more. All ages. 

Sim Earth — Students design and take 
charge of their own planet. All ages. 

Sim Farm — Students create and run their 
own farm. All ages. 

Sim Golf — Students create and compete on 
their own golf courses or play two built-in 
courses. All ages. 

Sim Park — Students create and explore 
their own living parks filled with wildlife, 
plants and people. Ages 8 and up. 

Sim Safari — Students create and explore 
their own African safari parks and camps. 
Ages 8 and up. 

Sim Town — Students design and build 
their own towns. Ages 6-10. 



GT.281 



Some of my best friends are books: guiding 
gifted readers from preschool to high 
school (1995) by Judith Wynn Halsted. 
Dayton, OH: Ohio Psychology Press. 
ISBN 0-910707-24-3. ECS-Grade 12. 

Part one presents background information 
on the emotional and intellectual needs of 
gifted children. Part two describes typical 
reading patterns, the need for reading 
guidance and ways to discuss books with 
students. Part three is an annotated 
bibliography of over 300 books selected to 
be useful in promoting intellectual and 
emotional development of girted students. 
Includes an extensive index. 

Strategy challenges collection 1: around the 
world (CD-ROM). Redmond, WA: 
Edmark Corporation. Grades 1-12. 

This CD contains three classic games from 
around the world: Mancala, Go-Moku and 
Nine Men's Morris. Each game has an on- 
screen demonstration that shows how to 
play the game, choices of various levels of 
difficulty and a Strategy Coach that 
provides tips and suggestions. The student 
can play against the computer or with 
another student. Students can also learn 
about the history and country of origin of 
the game. Good for problem solving and 
developing strategies. 

Strategy challenges collection 2: in the wild 
(CD-ROM). Redmond, WA: Edmark 
Corporation. Grades 1-12. 

This CD contains the games Jungle Chess, 
Srakarta and Tablut which involve both 
offensive and defensive strategies. Each 
game has an on-screen demonstration that 
shows how to play the game, choices of 
various levels of difficulty and a Strategy 
Coach that provides tips and suggestions. 
The student can play against the computer 
or with another student. Strategy Safari 
videos, text and sound describe how animals 
use offensive and defensive strategic 
behaviours to survive. 



Studies in philosophy for children: Harry 
Stottlemeier 's discovery (1991) edited by 
Ann Margaret Sharp & Ronald F. Reed. 
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University 
Press. ISBN 0-87722-873-6. 
ECS-Grade 12. 

A collection of essays that discuss the 
development and refinement of the 
Philosophy for Children program and how it 
relates to the tradition of philosophy itself. 

Teaching gifted kids in the regular 

classroom: strategies and techniques 
every teacher can use to meet the 
academic needs of the gifted and 
talented (1992) by Susan Winebrenner. 
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit 
Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-915793-47-4. 
ECS-Grade 12. 

A teacher-written resource that offers a 
comprehensive array of strategies to use 
with gifted students in the regular 
classroom. Discusses identification, 
curriculum compacting, learning contracts, 
reading instruction and evaluation. A useful 
teacher-friendly guide for differentiating 
instruction. 

Teaching young gifted children in the 
regular classroom: identifying, 
nurturing, and challenging ages 4-9 
(1997) by Joan Franklin Smutny, Sally 
Yahnke Walker & Elizabeth A. 
Meckstroth. Minneapolis, MN: Free 
Spirit Publishing Inc. 
ISBN 1-57542-017-1. ECS-Grade 4. 

This resource offers strategies and 
techniques to identify giftedness, infuse the 
classroom with an atmosphere of wonder, 
and an attitude of acceptance and 
understanding, recognize and teach to 
multiple intelligences, present the 
curriculum in creative and challenging 
ways, assess and document students' 
development, and build partnerships with 
parents and enlist their support. 



GT.282 



Think-ercises — math & word puzzles to 
exercise your brain (Book 1) (1995) by 
Terry H. Stickels. Pacific Grove, CA: 
Critical Thinking Press & Software. 
ISBN 0-89455-633-9. Grades 3-12. 

A book of puzzles and brain teasers 
designed to elicit divergent thinking and 
problem-solving strategies. Useful for 
challenging students to explore their own 
thinking processes. 

Thinkin ' things series (CD-ROM). 

Redmond, WA: Edmark Corporation. 
ECS-Grade 6. 

This series focuses on critical thinking and 
problem-solving skills. The activities 
support multiple intelligences and are 
multidisciplinary. Each program offers five 
or six different activities, each with its own 
range of levels of difficulty. Students can 
view, listen and learn as well as create. The 
series includes Thinkin' Things 1, 2 and 3. 

Thoughtsteps Discovering . . . Centres 
(1996-1999) by Karina Younk. Laval, 
QC: Art Image Publications (Groupe 
Beauchemin). Grades 4-7. 

• Discovering Wind and Water Centre 

• Discovering Space Centre 

• Discovering Culture and Values 
Centre 

These integrated learning centres may be 
used in the regular classroom and with 
gifted students. Activities are designed 
around themes with a social studies or 
science focus. Each centre includes the 
following components: 

- Thoughtsteps Maps (similar to a menu for 
deciding directions) 

- one Steps to Discovering . . . activity 
book for both students and teachers 

- one Discovering . . . resource book 
containing stories, experiments, images, 
graphs relating to the themes 



- two Planners (Educator's and Student's) 
enabling educators to plan according to 
learning outcomes and providing a 
learning portfolio for students 

- one Introduction to Thoughtsteps (an 
overview of the program and the learning 
outcomes for each subject area). 

All centre components may be purchased 
separately or in packages of five. 

Thoughtsteps Toolbox and Evaluations 
(1996) by Karina Younk. Laval, QC: 
Art Image Publications (Groupe 
Beauchemin). ISBN 1-896876-02-1. 
Grades 4-7. 

Students are given examples of processing 
strategies relating to metacognitive skills, 
communication skills (verbal, written and 
visual) and comprehension of subject- 
specific terms. Each Toolbox "how to" card 
has a corresponding self-evaluation form. 
The evaluations may be photocopied for use 
in the classroom. 

Twists and turns and tangles in math and 
physics: instructional material for 
developing scientific and logical 
thinking (T994) by Samuel Katzoff. 
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins 
University, Institute for the Academic 
Advancement of Youth. 
ISBN 1-881622-15-0. 
Grades 5-12. 

A resource for junior high and high school 
teachers that includes a collection of 
complex problems and activities in 
mathematics and science intended to 
challenge gifted and talented learners. The 
focus is on examining ideas and 
experiments critically while learning 
problem-solving strategies. The authors 
suggest that the activities could be used for 
self-study by highly motivated students. 



GT.283 



Up from under-achievement: how teachers, 
students, and parents can work together 
to promote student success ( 1 99 1 ) by 
Diane Heacox. Minneapolis, MN: Free 
Spirit Publishing. 
ISBN 0-915793-35-0. Grades 1-12. 

This is a practical guide for assistant 
teachers, students and parents in developing 
strategies for helping students overcome 
underachievement. The focus of the 
suggestions is on parents, teachers and 
students working together. It includes 
numerous checklists, forms, contracts and 
planning ideas. 



Journals 

Challenge. Boulder, CO: Good Apple, Inc. 

This journal is published five times a year 
for parents and teachers of preschool 
through Grade 8. It contains reproducible 
activities for students, articles by scholars in 
gifted education, notices of upcoming 
events and ideas for parents. 

Gifted Child Quarterly. Washington. DC: 
National Association for Gifted 
Children. 

This magazine is published by the National 
Association for Gifted Children. It is an 
academic journal published quarterly which 
focuses on recent research in the field of 
gifted education. It contains book reviews, 
an editorial and notices of conferences. 

Gifted Child Today. Waco, TX: Prufrock 
Press. 

This bi-monthly magazine is for parents and 
teachers. It features articles by teachers and 
scholars on issues in education, classroom 
strategies, news briefs, product reviews, 
conferences and contests. 



Imagine: Opportunities and Resources for 
Academically Talented Youth. 
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins 
University Press. 

A journal for students, educators and 
parents. It contains articles written by 
students and professionals that focus on 
careers, academics and college planning. It 
also includes student-created puzzles, book 
reviews and web sites. 

Journal for the Education of the Gifted. 
Waco, TX: Prufrock Press. 

Published quarterly. This is the official 
publication of the Association for the 
Gifted, a division of the Council for 
Exceptional Children. This magazine 
publishes original research, theoretical 
papers, historical perspectives, reviews of 
literature and descriptions of innovative 
programming. 

Journal of Secondary Gifted Education. 
Waco, TX: Prufrock Press. 

Published quarterly, this academic journal 
focuses on current research and classroom 
practice in secondary gifted education. 

Roeper Review. Bloomfield Hills, MI: 
Roeper School. 

A professional journal published quarterly 
which includes articles on issues in gifted 
education, such as talent development, 
affective dimensions of being gifted, 
perspectives on giftedness. Regular 
columns include testing, research, doctoral 
dissertations, professional development, 
programs, book reviews and parenting. 



GT.284 



Understanding Our Gifted. Boulder, CO: 
Open Space Communications Inc. 

Good resource for teachers, parents and 
counsellors. Focuses on social, emotional 
and intellectual needs of gifted children. 
Contains well-written articles on various 
themes, such as perfectionism, multicultural 
issues, gifted disabled and others. Includes 
regular columns on parenting, instructional 
strategies, book reviews, Internet sites. 
Editorial board consists of well-known 
scholars in the field of gifted education. 
Published quarterly. 



Professional Resources 

Comprehensive curriculum for gifted 
learners (1993) (second edition) edited 
by Joyce VanTassel-Baska. Needham 
Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 
Longwood Division. 
ISBN 0-205-15412-3. 

This text provides both theory and practical 
applications for developing curriculum for 
gifted learners. It examines each of the core 
disciplines of verbal arts, social studies, 
science and mathematics as well as the areas 
of humanities, arts, thinking skills, affective 
domain and leadership. 

Counseling the gifted and talented ( 1 993) 
edited by Linda Kreger Silverman. 
Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co. 
ISBN 0-89108-227-1. 

This text includes understanding giftedness, 
the counselling process, counselling in the 
schools and special issues. The appendix 
includes several bibliographies: for parents, 
books for children featuring gifted children, 
biographies for gifted students, periodicals 
in gifted education, and resources for 
counselling and assessment. 



Creativity in the classroom: schools of 
curious delight (1995) by Alane Jordan 
Starko. White Plains, NY: Longman 
Publishers. ISBN 0-8013-1230-2. 
ECS-Grade 12. 

This book is a practical guide for 
developing creativity in the classroom. The 
book is divided into two sections. Part one, 
Understanding Creative People and 
Processes, examines theories and models of 
creativity, creative persons, creativity and 
talent development. Part two, Creativity 
and Classroom Life, contains chapters on 
creativity in the content areas, teaching 
creative thinking skills, classroom 
organization and assessment. 

Curriculum development and teaching 
strategies for gifted learners ( 1 996) 
(second edition) by C. June Maker & 
Aleene B. Nielson. Austin, TX: 
PRO-ED. ISBN 0-89079-631-9. 

Part one of this resource examines current 
principles of curriculum based on learning 
environment, content, process and product. 
Part two details practical applications for 
the elementary classroom. Includes 
information on differentiating the regular 
classroom curriculum, interdisciplinary 
units of study, scaffolding, multiple 
intelligences, problem-solving. 

Education of the gifted and talented (1 993) 
(third edition) by Gary A. Davis & 
Sylvia B. Rimm. Needham Heights, 
MA: Allyn and Bacon. 
ISBN 0-205-14806-9. 

Thorough coverage of the main topics of 
gifted education, including definition of 
giftedness, identification, characteristics, 
program planning, curriculum models, 
acceleration, enrichment, counselling, 
affective learning and leadership, creativity, 
thinking skills, special populations of gifted, 
parenting and program evaluation. 



GT.285 



Education of the gifted: programs and 
perspectives (1990) by Joan Franklin 
Smutny & Rita Haynes Blocksom. 
Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappan 
Educational Foundation. 
ISBN 0-87367^45-6. 

An introductory text which briefly covers 
identification of the gifted, strategies for 
teaching gifted, organizing the gifted 
program, building support for programs, 
pre-school gifted, gifted girls, special 
populations, disadvantaged and minority 
gifted, programs for secondary students and 
evaluating gifted programs. Each chapter 
contains a list of references for those who 
would like to explore the topics in more 
depth. 

Excellence in educating gifted and talented 
learners (1998) (third edition) by Joyce 
VanTassel-Baska. Denver, CO: Love 
Publishing Company. 
ISBN 0-89108-255-7. ECS-Grade 12. 

A comprehensive introduction to topics and 
issues in gifted and talented education. The 
text focuses on the nature of giftedness, 
special populations; i.e. girls, 
underachievers. handicapped, 
disadvantaged; identifying the gifted; 
developing programs; teacher training and 
counselling the gifted. 

GIFTED: challenge and response for 
education (1992) by Joe Khatena. 
Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. 
ISBN 0-87581-349-6. ECS-Grade 12. 

A comprehensive text that is a compilation 
of theory, research, practice and historical 
perspective in gifted education. Includes 
types of giftedness, identification, problems 
of gifted children, nurturing creativity, 
learning designs, development of gifted 
children. 



Handbook of gifted education ( 1 996) 

(second edition) by Nicholas Colangelo 
& Gary A. Davis. Needham Heights, 
MA: Allyn and Bacon. 
ISBN 0-205-26085-3. 

A collection of writings by eminent scholars 
in the field of gifted education. Sections 
include: 

• historical overview 

• issues in education of the gifted 

• conceptions and identification 

• instructional models and practices 

• creativity and thinking skills 

• psychological and counselling services 

• special topics including extreme 
precocity, gifted adolescents, ethnic and 
cultural issues, gifted handicapped 

• the future. 

Useful resource for systems and schools 
developing programs for gifted. 

A Passion to learn (video) (1993). 
Vancouver, BC: Vancouver School 
Board. 

This video profiles three elementary schools 
in Vancouver and their approaches to 
meeting the needs of gifted students. 
Teachers and students discuss myths of 
gifted education, teaching strategies, 
program options and the importance of 
meeting the needs of the gifted. Useful for 
professional development of teachers and 
presenting information to parents. 



GT.286 



Smart teaching: nurturing talent in the 
classroom and beyond ( 1 993) by Janice 
Leroux & Edna McMillan. Markham, 
ON: Pembroke Publishers Ltd. 
ISBN 1-55138-006^. 

A quick reference that gives brief 
summaries of such issues as: 

• identification of high-ability students 

• setting up programs 

• advocacy in school and community 

• models for gifted education 

• evaluation. 

Also includes appendices on gifted 
resources. A "starter" resource — abridged 
but good, brief descriptions of various 
aspects of gifted education. 

Source book for creative problem-solving: a 
fifty year digest of proven innovation 
processes (1992) edited by Sidney J. 
Parnes. Buffalo, NY: Creative 
Education Foundation Press. 
ISBN 0-930222-922. 

In the words of the editor, "this book deals 
with what has been learned about the 
deliberate systematic development of 
creative potential." Although this mini 
encyclopedia is directed to a much broader 
audience, teachers will find that the articles 
provide a balance between sound theory and 
practical strategies for stimulating creative 
thinking in the classroom. The compilation 
of articles is accessed through a table of 
contents and a detailed index. 



Systems and models for developing 
programs for the gifted and talented 
(1986) edited by Joseph S. Renzulli. 
Storrs, CT: Creative Learning Press, 
Inc. ISBN 0-936386-44-4. 
ECS-Grade 12. 

This book provides a survey of 1 5 
well-known models developed to guide 
special programs for gifted students at all 
grade levels. It includes Renzulli's 
Enrichment Traid Model. Bert's 
Autonomous Learner Model, Kaplan's 
Differentiated Curriculum Model and 
Clark's Integrated Education Model, as well 
as others. 

Teaching models in education of the gifted 
(1994) (second edition) by C. June 
Maker & Aleene B. Nielson. Austin, 
TX: PRO-ED. ISBN 0-89079-609-2. 

This book provides a comprehensive 
examination of 13 teaching models of gifted 
education, including Betts, Bloom. Parnes, 
Renzulli, Sharon, Taylor. Treffinger and 
others. It compares the different models and 
identifies the key elements of each one. 
discusses how to choose an appropriate 
model according to program goals and how 
to modify and adapt the model to specific 
program objectives. It provides examples of 
teaching activities for each model. 

Teaching the gifted child (1 994) (fourth 
edition) by James J. Gallagher & 
Shelagh A. Gallagher. Boston. MA: 
Allyn and Bacon. 
ISBN 0-205-1 4828-X. ECS-Grade 12. 

This is the fourth edition of this well-known 
comprehensive text on gifted education. 
Sections include definition and 
identification; characteristics; school 
adaptations; content modifications in 
mathematics, science, language arts, social 
studies and visual and performing arts; and 
information processing strategies. 



GT.287 



SECTION 9: PUBLISHERS' ADDRESSES 



Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. 
26 Prince Andrew Place 
P.O. Box 580 
Don Mills, ON M3C 2T8 
Telephone: (416)447-5101 

1-800-387-8028 (orders) 

Allyn and Bacon 
Needham Heights/Boston, MA 
Canadian Distributor: 
Prentice Hall Canada, Inc. 
1870 Birchmount Road 
Scarborough, ON M1P2J7 
Telephone: (416)293-3621 
1-800-567-3800 

Art Image Publications Inc. 
3281 Jean Beraud Ave. 
Laval, QC H7T 2L2 
Telephone: 1-800-361-2598 (English) 
1-800-361^1504 (Francois) 

Broadview Press 
Western Office 
627, 604 - 1 St. S.W. 
Calgary, AB T2P 1M7 
Telephone: (403) 232-6863 

Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc. 
Norwood, MA 
Canadian Distributor: 
Irwin Publishing 
325 Humber College Boulevard 
Toronto, ON M9W 7C3 
Telephone: (416) 798-0424 
1-800-263-7824 

Creative Education Foundation Press 

#4, 1050 Union Road 

Buffalo, NY 14224 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (716)675-3181 



Creative Learning Press Inc. 

Storrs, CT 

Canadian Distributor: 

Mind Resources Inc. 

P.O.Box 126 

Kitchener, ON N2G 3W9 

Telephone: (519)895-0330 

Critical Thinking Press & Software 
Pacific Grove, CA 
Canadian Distributor: 
Brijan Resources Ltd. 
822 Burton Loop 
Edmonton, AB T6R 2J2 
Telephone: (780) 430-8305 
1-800-567-1147 

Edmark Corporation 
Redmond, WA 
Canadian Distributor: 
Insight Media Centre Ltd. 
10501 - 125B St. 
Surrey, BC V3V 5A8 
Telephone: (604)581-2420 

F. E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. 

115 West Orchard 

Itasca, IL 60143-1780 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (630) 775-9000 

Free Spirit Publishing 
Minneapolis, MN 
Canadian Distributor: 
Monarch Books of Canada 
5000 Dufferin St. 
Downsview, ON M3H 5T5 
Telephone: (416)663-8231 
1-800^04-7404 



GT.288 



Good Apple, Inc. 

P.O. Box 299 

Carthage, IL 62321 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (217)357-3981 

Johns Hopkins University Press 

Center for Talented Youth 

3400 North Charles St. 

Baltimore, MD 21218-4319 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (410)516-0309 

Key Curriculum Press 
Berkeley, CA 
Canadian Distributor: 
Spectrum Educational Supplies Ltd. 
125 Mary St. 
Aurora, ON L4G 1G3 
Telephone: (905) 841-0600 
1-800-668-0600 

Libraries Unlimited Inc. 
Englewood, CO 
Canadian Distributor: 
International Press Publications 
90 Nolan Court, #21 
Markham, ON L3R4L9 
Telephone: (905) 946-9588 

1-800-679-2514 (orders only) 

Longman Publishers 
White Plains, NY 
Canadian Distributor: 
Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. 
26 Prince Andrew Place 
P.O. Box 580 
Don Mills, ON M3C 2T8 
Telephone: (416)447-5101 

1-800-387-8028 (orders) 

Love Publishing Co. 

1777 South Bellaire St. 

Denver, CO 80222 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (303) 757-2579 



Maxis 

2121 North California Boulevard, Suite 600 

Walnut Creek, CA 94596-3572 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (510)933-5630 

MECC 

Minneapolis, MN 
Canadian Distributor: 
(Core Curriculum Technologies) 
CCT Software Plus 
Unit 101, 3738 North Fraser Way 
Burnaby, BC V5J 5K8 
Telephone: (604)419-1234 
1-800-663-7731 

National Association for Gifted Children 

Suite 550, 1707 L St. N.W. 

Washington, DC 20036 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (202) 785-4268 

(Ohio Psychology Press) 

Gifted Psychology Press 

P.O. Box 5057 

Scottsdale, AZ 85261 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (602) 368-7862 

Open Space Communications Inc. 

Suite 108, 1900FolsomSt. 

Boulder, CO 80302 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (303) 444-7020 

Pembroke Publishers Ltd. 
538 Hood Road 
Markham, ON L3R 3K9 
Telephone: (905) 477-0650 
1-800-997-9807 



GT.289 



Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation 

408 North Union St. 

P.O. Box 789 

Bloomington, IN 47405-3800 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (812)339-1156 

PRO-ED 

Austin, TX 

Canadian Distributor: 

Mind Resources Inc. 

P.O.Box 126 

Kitchener, ON N2G 3W9 

Telephone: (519)895-0330 



Teachers College Press 
Williston, VT 
Canadian Distributor: 
Guidance Centre 
712 Gordon Baker Road 
Toronto, ON M2H 3R7 
Telephone: (416)502-1262 
1-800-668-6247 

Temple University Press 
1601 North Broad St. 
USB Room 305 
Philadelphia, PA 19122 
Telephone: 1-800^177-1656 



Prufrock Press 

P.O. Box 8813 

Waco,TX 76714-8813 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: 1-800-998-2208 

Roeper School 

P.O. Box 329 

Bloomfield Hills, MI 48303 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (248) 203-7320 

Scholastic Canada Ltd. 
123 Newkirk Road 
Richmond Hill, ON L4C 3G5 
Telephone: (905) 883-5300 
1-800-268-3848 



Vancouver School Board 
Distributor: 

Magic Lantern Communications Ltd. 
Western Office 
Unit #3, 8755 Ash St. 
Vancouver, BC V6P 6T3 
Telephone: (604) 324-2600 
1-800-263-1818 

Zephyr Press 
Tucson, AZ 
Canadian Distributor: 
Mind Resources Inc. 
P.O.Box 126 
Kitchener, ON N2G 3W9 
Telephone: (519)895-0330 



GT.290 



SECTION 10: ANNOTATED TEST INVENTORY 



The following annotated test inventory includes the level of training required to administer and 
interpret the tests. The following levels are taken from Standards for Psycho-educational 
Assessment (Alberta Education, 1994): 

Level A: requires no formal training in testing 

Level B: requires formal training in testing 

Level C: restricted tests requiring professional qualifications. 

See page GT.306 for a chart illustrating the standards of competence, level of tests and 
qualifications. See pages GT.307-308 for distributors' addresses. The following information 
was provided by the publishers. 



Achievement 

Group Administered Tests 



The Brigance Diagnostic Comprehensive 
Inventory of Basic Skills, 1983 (CIBS) 

Author: Albert H. Brigance 
Publisher: Curriculum Associates Inc. 
Canadian Distributor: Curriculum Associates 

Inc. 
Description: Measures attainment of basic 

academic skills, used for developing IPPs 

and determining academic placement. 
Test Scores: Grade equivalents 
Population: ECS to Grade 9 
Administration Time: Untimed, varies 
Reliability and Validity: Not reported in test 

manual 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 

formal training in testing required. 

Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, 1995 (CTBS) 
Authors: E. King-Shaw and others 
Publisher: Nelson Canada 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 
Description: Three test levels — primary, 
multilevel and high school. Multiple 
choice, paper and pencil subtests for 
vocabulary, reading comprehension, 
spelling, capitalization, punctuation, usage. 



visual materials, reference materials, 

mathematics concepts, mathematics problem 

solving and mathematics computation. 
Test Scores: Grade score equivalents, percentile 

ranks 
Population: ECS to Grade 12 
Administration Time: Primary - 235 minutes, 

Multilevel - 256 minutes. High school - 

160 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 

formal training in testing required. 

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests — Second 

Canadian Edition, 1992 

Authors: W. H. MacGinitie and R. L. 

MacGinitie 
Publisher: Riverside Publishing Co. 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 
Description: Measures reading achievement in 

terms of vocabulary and comprehension. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks, grade equivalent 

scores 
Population: ECS to Grade 12 
Administration Time: 55-105 minutes 

depending on grade level of students 
Reliability and Validity: Very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 

formal training in testing required. 



GT.291 



Orleans-Hanna Algebra Prognosis Test 

Authors: Joseph B. Orleans and Gerald S. 

Hanna 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributor: Harcourt Canada 
Description: Areas assessed include identifying 

those students who may be expected to 

experience success or difficulties in algebra. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks and stanines. 
Population: Grades 8-1 1 . 
Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 

50-60 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports test-retest reliability 

and internal consistency. 
Validity: Manual reports predictive validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 

formal training in testing is required. 

Stanford Diagnostic Math Test — Third 
Edition, 1984 

Authors: L. S. Beatty, R. Madden, E. F. 

Gardner and B. Karlsen 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributors: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book, Harcourt Canada 
Description: Assesses number systems, 

numeration, computation and applications; 

divided into four levels with two alternate 

forms. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks, stanines, scaled 

scores, grade equivalents and progress 

indicators 
Population: Grades 1.5-12.8 
Administration Time: 85-100 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 

formal training in testing required. 

Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test — Third 
Edition, 1984 

Authors: B. Karlsen and E. F. Gardner 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributors: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book, Harcourt Canada 
Description: Measures reading comprehension, 

reading vocabulary, reading decoding and 

reading rate. Divided into four levels with 

two equivalent forms. 



Test Scores: Percentile ranks, grade equivalents 
Population: Grades 1.5-12.8 
Administration Time: 1 05-1 26 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 
formal training in testing required. 



Achievement 

Individually Administered Tests 

Alberta Diagnostic Mathematics Program, 
1990 

Author: Alberta Education 

Publisher: Alberta Education 

Canadian Distributor: Learning Resources 
Distributing Centre 

Description: Five handbooks for Grades 1-3 
and five for Grades 4-6. Each handbook 
contains evaluation strategies and follow-up 
instructional strategies. The titles are: 
numeration, operations and properties, 
measurement, geometry and problem 
solving. 

Test Scores: Strong, adequate, weak ratings for 
grade objectives 

Population: Grades 1-6 

Administration Time: Untimed 

Reliability and Validity: Not available 

Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 
formal training in testing required. 

Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program, 1986 

Author: Alberta Education 

Publisher: Alberta Education 

Canadian Distributor: Learning Resources 
Distributing Centre 

Description: Forty-eight reading passages to 
determine students' independent, 
instructional and frustration reading levels. 
Six evaluation strategies provided: a 
reading process checklist, oral reading 
miscues, retelling, comprehension 
questions, close and sentence verification. 
Instructional strategies provided. 

Test Scores: Independent, instructional, 
frustration reading level 

Population: Grades 1/4-6 



GT.292 



Administration Time: Untimed 
Reliability and Validity: Not available 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 
formal training in testing required. 

Canada Quick Individual Education Test, 1990 
(CANADA QUIET) 

Authors: C. T. Wormelli and D. E. Carter 
Publisher: Canadian Edumetrics Ltd., White 

Rock, B.C. 
Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book 
Description: Measures spelling, mathematics, 

word identification and passage 

comprehension. 
Test Scores: Standard scores and percentiles 
Population: Grades 2-12 (mathematics and 

word identification subtests may also be 

administered to Grade 1 students) 
Administration Time: 30-60 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing. The 

manual recommends administration by an 

examiner who passes native fluency in 

English. 

Diagnostic Achievement Battery 2, 1990 
(DAB-2) 

Author: Phyllis L. Newcomer 

Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 

Canadian Distributors: Multi-Health Systems 
Inc., Mind Resources Inc., Guidance Centre, 
The Testing Materials Resource Book 

Description: Measures listening, reading, 
mathematics, speaking, writing (12 
subtests). 

Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks 

Population: 6-14 years 

Administration Time: Untimed. 30-90 minutes 

Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 

Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, some 
subtests are suitable for group use. 



Formal Reading Inventory 1986 (FRI) 

Author: F. L. Wiederholt 

Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 

Canadian Distributor: Mind Resources Inc. 

Description: Assesses silent reading 

comprehension and oral reading miscues 
(meaning similarity, function similarity, 
graphic/phonemic similarity, multiple 
sources and self-correction) equivalent 
forms for oral and silent reading 
comprehension. 

Test Scores: Silent reading quotient 

Population: Grades 1-12 

Administration Time: Untimed 

Reliability and Validity: Good 

Administrative Considerations: Level A. no 
formal training in testing required, silent 
reading forms suitable for group use. oral 
reading forms suitable for individual 
administration. 

Gray Oral Reading Test 3, 1992 (GORT-3) 

Authors: F. L. Wiederholt and B. R. Bryant 

Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 

Canadian Distributors: Multi-Health Systems 

Inc., Mind Resources Inc., James Battle & 

Associates, The Testing Materials Resource 

Book 
Description: Assesses oral reading rate, errors 

and comprehension. Manual provides a 

system for analyzing miscues. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks, 

grade equivalent scores 
Population: 7-18 years 

Administration Time: Untimed. 20-30 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B. 

requires formal training in testing. 

Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, 
1985(K-TEA) 

Authors: Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. 

Kaufman 
Publisher: American Guidance Service 
Canadian Distributors: Psycan, The Testing 

Materials Resource Book 



GT.293 



Description: Assesses educational achievement. 
Two forms are available. The 
comprehensive form includes mathematics 
computation/applications, reading 
decoding/comprehension and spelling. The 
brief form includes reading, mathematics 
and spelling achievement. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks for grade and age, 
age and grade equivalent scores, stanines, 
normal curve equivalents, standard scores 
Population: 6-18 years. Grades 1-12 
Administration Time: Brief form 20-30 
minutes. Comprehensive form 30-60 
minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Keymath-Revised (Canadian Edition): A 
Diagnostic Inventory of Essential 
Mathematics, 1991 

Author: A. J. Connolly 
Publisher: Psycan 
Canadian Distributor: Psycan 
Description: Consists of 13 subtests: 

numeration, rational numbers, geometry, 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
division, mental computation, measurement, 
time and money, estimation, interpreting 
data and problem solving. 
Test Scores: Grade equivalent scores, standard 

scores, scaled scores, percentile ranks 
Population: ECS to Grade 9 
Administration Time: 30-50 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Nelson-Denny Reading Test, 1993 

Authors: J. I. Brown, V. V. Fishco and G. S. 

Hanna 
Publisher: Riverside Publishing Co. 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 
Description: Assesses student achievement and 

progress in vocabulary, comprehension and 

reading rate. Two equivalent forms 

available. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks, grade equivalents 



Population: Grades 9-12 and adults 
Administration Time: 35-45 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Not available for 

current edition 
Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 

formal training in testing required, also 

suitable for group use. 

Peabody Individual Achievement Test, 
Revised, 1989 (PIAT-R) 

Author: F. C. Markwardt. Jr. 
Publisher: American Guidance Service 
Canadian Distributor: Psycan 
Description: Measures general information, 
reading recognition, reading comprehension, 
spelling, mathematics and written 
expression. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks for age and grade, 
grade and age equivalent scores, standard 
scores, stanines, normal curve equivalents 
Population: ECS to Grade 12 
Administration Time: 50-70 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Quick-Score Achievement Test, 1987 (Q-SAT) 
Authors: D. D. Hammill, J. F. Ammer, M. E. 

Cronin, L. H. Handelbaum and S. S. Quinby 
Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc., 

James Battle & Associates, The Testing 

Materials Resource Book 
Description: Measures proficiency in reading, 

writing and mathematics, and general 

knowledge in science, social, health and 

language arts. Two equivalent forms 

available. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile scores 
Population: Grades 1-12 
Administration Time: 40 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing. 



GT.294 



Test of Early Mathematics Ability — Second 
Edition, 1990 (TEMA-2) 

Authors: H. F. Ginsburg and A. J. Baroody 

Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 

Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc.. 
The Testing Materials Resource Book 

Description: Assesses informal mathematics: 
concepts of relative magnitude, counting 
skills, calculation; and formal mathematics: 
reading and writing numbers, number facts, 
calculation algorithms, base- 10 concepts. 

Test Scores: Standard scores and percentile 
ranks 

Population: 3-8 years 

Administration Time: Untimed 

Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 

Administrative Considerations: Level A. no 
formal training in testing required. 

Test of Early Reading Ability, Second Edition, 

1989 (TERA-2) 

Authors: D. K. Reid, W. P. Hresko and D. D. 

Hammill 
Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc., 

The Testing Materials Resource Book 
Description: Assesses knowledge of contextual 

meaning, alphabet and conventions of print. 

Two equivalent forms. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks, normal curve 

equivalents, reading quotients. All scores 

are based on age. 
Population: 3-9 years, 1 1 months 
Administration Time: Untimed 
Reliability and Validity: Good to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing. 

Test of Early Written Language, 1988 (TEWL) 

Author: W. P. Hresko 

Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 

Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc., 

James Battle & Associates, The Testing 

Materials Resource Book 
Description: Assesses emerging written 

language skills of young children. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks. 

All scores are based on age. 



Population: 3-7 years 

Administration Time: Untimed, 10-30 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Test of Mathematical Abilities - Second 

Edition, 1994 (TOMA-2) 

Authors: V. L. Brown. M. E. Cronin and E. 

McEntire 
Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: James Battle & 

Associates, The Testing Materials Resource 

Book 
Description: Measures mathematical ability in 

five areas: vocabulary, computation. 

general information, story problems and 

attitude toward mathematics. 
Test Scores: Standard scores and percentile 

ranks 
Population: 8-18 years. 1 1 months 
Administration Time: 1 20-1 30 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing; also 

suitable for group use. 

The Test of Reading Comprehension, Revised 
Edition, 1986 (TORC) 

Authors: V. L. Brown, D. D. Hammill and F. L. 
Wiederholt 

Publisher: PRO-ED, Inc. 

Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc., 
James Battle & Associates, Guidance 
Centre, The Testing Materials Resource 
Book. Psycan 

Description: Assesses general vocabulary, 
syntactic similarities, paragraph reading, 
sentence sequencing, mathematics 
vocabulary, social studies vocabulary, 
science vocabulary and reading directions of 
school work. 

Test Scores: Reading comprehension quotient, 
standard scores for each subtest, percentile 
ranks. All scores are based on age. 

Population: Grades 2-12 

Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 
105 minutes 



GT.295 



Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Test of Written Language — Second Edition, 
1988(TOWL-2) 

Authors: D. D. Hammill and S. C. Larsen 
Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc., 
Guidance Centre, The Testing Materials 
Resource Book 
Description: Assesses written language areas: 
thematic maturity, contextual vocabulary, 
syntactic maturity, contextual spelling, 
contextual style, vocabulary, style and 
spelling, logical sentences and sentence 
combining. Two alternate forms provided. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile scores 
Population: Grades 2-12, 7-17 years 
Administration Time: Untimed except 15 

minute limit for story composition 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing; also 
suitable for group use. 

Test of Written Spelling — Third Edition, 1994 
(TWS-3) 

Authors: S. C. Larsen and D. D. Hammill 

Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 

Canadian Distributor: James Battle & 

Associates 
Description: Measures students' spelling 

abilities for words easily predictable by 

their sound and for more irregular words. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks 
Population: Grades 1-12 
Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 

20 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 



Weschler Individual Achievement Test, 1992 
(WIAT) 

Author: The Psychological Corporation 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributors: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book, Harcourt Canada 
Description: Measures basic reading, reading 
comprehension, total reading, mathematical 
reasoning, numerical operations, total 
mathematics, listening comprehension, oral 
expression, total language, spelling, written 
expression, total writing. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks, 
grade and age, equivalent scores, stanines, 
normal curve equivalents 
Population: 5-19 years 

Administration Time: Untimed, 30-75 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Wide Range Achievement Test, 1993 
(WRAT-3) 

Author: J. S. Wilkinson 

Publisher: Jastak Associates/Wide-Range Inc. 

Canadian Distributors: James Battle & 

Associates, Guidance Centre, The Testing 

Materials Resource Book 
Description: Assesses basic reading, spelling 

and mathematics skills with two alternative 

test forms. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks, 

grade equivalent scores 
Population: 5-75 years 
Administration Time: 15-30 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Very good (validity 

not addressed fully) 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational 
Battery-Revised, 1991 (WJ-R); Test of 
Achievement 

Authors: Richard W. Woodcock and M. Bonner 

Johnson 
Publisher: The Riverside Publishing Company 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 



GT.296 



Description: In terms of achievement, a broad 
reading, mathematics, written language and 
knowledge score are provided. The broad 
reading score includes letter-word 
identification, passage comprehension, word 
attack and reading vocabulary. Calculation, 
applied problems and quantitative concepts 
make up the broad mathematics score. The 
broad written language score includes 
dictation, writing samples, proofing, writing 
fluency, punctuation and capitalization, 
spelling and usage. Science, social studies 
and humanities make up the broad 
knowledge score. 

Test Scores: Cluster scores, average age scores, 
percentile ranks 

Population: 2-90 years 

Administration Time: 30-^0 minutes for the 
Standard battery, an additional 40 minutes 
for the Supplemental battery 

Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 

Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, also 
suitable for group use. 

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test — Revised, 
1987(WRMT-R) 

Author: Richard W. Woodcock 

Publisher: American Guidance Service 

Canadian Distributor: Psycan 

Description: Form G is comprised of six core 
subtests: visual auditory learning, letter 
identification, word identification, word 
attack, word comprehension, passage 
comprehension and one optional test: 
supplementary letter checklist. Form H is 
comprised of four of the six core subtests: 
word identification, word attack, word 
comprehension and passage comprehension. 

Test Scores: Age and grade-based percentile 
ranks, standard scores, and age and grade 
equivalents 

Population: 5-75+ years 

Administration Time: Untimed, 10-30 minutes 
per subtest 

Reliability and Validity: Very good (validity is 
not addressed) 

Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 



Writing Process Test, 1992 (WPT) 

Authors: R. Warden and T. A. Hutchinson 

Publisher: Riverside Publishing Co. 

Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 

Description: Assesses skills in planning, 
writing and revising an original 
composition. This is a norm-referenced, 
performance-based assessment using an 
analytical scale. Two equivalent forms. 

Test Scores: Grade equivalents 

Population: Grades 2-12 

Administration Time: 45 minutes, plus 30 
minutes for revision 

Reliability and Validity: Good 

Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 
formal training in testing required, suitable 
for group use. 



Creativity 

Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent 
(Primary Level, Elementary level, and Upper 
Elementary Level) 

Author: Sylvia B. Rimm 

Publisher: Educational Assessment Service, 

Inc. 
Canadian Distributor: None 
Description: Areas assessed include 

independence, curiosity, perseverance, 

flexibility and varied interests. 
Test Scores: Percentile scores and normal score 

equivalents are provided. 
Population: Grades 1-6. 
Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 

20—45 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports interscorer, test- 

retest and alternate form reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports construct and 

criterion-related validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 



GT.297 



Group Inventory for Finding Interests (Level 
One, Grades six through nine, and level Two, 
Grades nine through twelve) 
Authors: Sylvia B. Rimm and Gary A. Davis 
Publisher: Educational Assessment Service. 

Inc. 
Canadian Distributor: None 
Description: Areas assessed include attitudes 

associated with creativity: independence, 

curiosity, perseverance, flexibility and 

breadth of interests. 
Test Scores: Percentile scores and normal score 

equivalents. 
Population: Grades 6-12. 
Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 

20-45 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports internal 

consistency. 
Validity: Manual reports construct and 

criterion-related validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B. 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

Khatena-Torrance Creative Perception 
Inventory 

Authors: Joe Khatena and E. Paul Torrance 

Publisher: The Stoelting Company 

Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 
Resource Book 

Description: Areas assessed include creative 
perception (totals). On Illicit Kind of 
Person Are You (WKOPAY), five factors 
are measured: Acceptance of authority, 
self-confidence, inquisitiveness, awareness 
of others and disciplined imagination. On 
Something About Myself (SAM), the 
following factors are measured: 
environmental sensitivity, initiative, self- 
strength, intellectuality, individuality and 
artistry. 

Test Scores: Standard scores for totals and 
factor groupings. 

Population: Junior high school to adult. 

Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 
40-45 minutes. 

Reliability: Manual reports test-retest 
reliability, internal consistency and 
interscorer reliability. 



Validity: Manual reports construct, content and 

criterion-related validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

Thinking Creatively with Sounds and Words 

— Onomatopoeia/Images 

Authors: E. Paul Torrance, Joe Khatena and 

Bert F. Cunningham 
Publisher: Personnel Press/Testing 
Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book 
Description: Areas assessed include originality. 
Test Scores: Means, standard deviations, and 

standard scores by grade and age for males 

and females. 
Population: Ages eight through adult. 
Administration Time: Approximately 35 

minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports interscorer, 

split-half and alternate form reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports construct and 

criterion-related validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. The examiner, 

through self-study, should be thoroughly 

familiar with test administration and scoring 

procedures. 

Thinking Creatively with Sounds and Words 

— Sounds/Images 

Authors: E. Paul Torrance, Joe Khatena and 

Bert F. Cunningham 
Publisher: Personnel Press/Testing 
Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book 
Description: Areas assessed include originality. 
Test Scores: Means and standard deviations are 

provided for subjects by sex and grade, and 

for college students. 
Population: Ages eight through adult. 
Administration Time: Approximately 35 

minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports interscorer, 

split-half and alternate form reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports construct and 

criterion-related validity. 



GT.298 



Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, also 
suitable for group use. The examiner, 
through self-study, should be thoroughly 
familiar with test administration and scoring 
procedures. 

Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking — 
Figural Test 

Author: E. Paul Torrance 
Publisher: Personnel Press/Testing 
Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book 
Description: Areas assessed include creative 

thinking: picture construction, picture 

completion and parallel lines. 
Test Scores: Raw scores for fluency, flexibility. 

originality and elaboration. T-score 

conversion tables are provided. Means and 

standard deviations are presented for Forms 

A and B for grades ECS through graduate 

school for fluency, flexibility, originality 

and elaboration. 
Population: ECS-adult. 
Administration Time: 30 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports interscorer, 

alternate form and test-retest reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports content, construct, 

concurrent and predictive validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 

restricted tests requiring professional 

qualifications. 

Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking — Verbal 
Test 

Author: E. Paul Torrance 

Publisher: Personnel Press/Testing 

Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 
Resource Book 

Description: Areas assessed include creative 
thinking: asking, guessing causes, guessing 
consequences, product improvement, 
unusual uses and unusual questions. 



Test Scores: Raw scores for originality, 
flexibility, fluency and elaboration. 
Conversion table for T scores is provided. 
Means and standard deviations for each 
subtest for fluency, flexibility and 
originality; means and standard deviations 
for grades ECS through graduate school for 
Forms A and B. 

Population: ECS-adult. 

Administration Time: 45 minutes 

Reliability: Manual reports interscorer, 
alternate form and test-retest reliability. 

Validity: Manual reports content, construct, 
concurrent and predictive validity. 

Administrative Considerations: Level C, 
restricted tests requiring professional 
qualifications. 

Welsh Figure Preference Test — Research 
Edition 

Author: George S. Welsh 

Publisher: Consulting Psychologists Press 

Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 
Resource Book 

Description: Areas assessed include 

personality: three validating scales, five 
empirical scales, eight item content keys, 
and three "judged" item scales. 

Test Scores: Means and standard deviations for 
men, women, male psychiatric patients and 
children. Raw scores should be converted 
to T-scores appropriate for the subject's sex, 
age, education or psychiatric status. 

Population: Children and adults. 

Administration Time: Untimed. 

Reliability: Manual reports test-retest 
reliability. 

Validity: Manual reports content and 
concurrent validity. 

Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, also 
suitable for group use. 



GT.299 



Intellectual 

Group Administered Tests 



Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test, 1990 
(CCAT) 

Author: Edgar N. Wright, in association with 

Robert L. Thorndike and Elizabeth P. Hagen 
Publisher: Nelson Canada 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 
Description: Assesses the development of 
cognitive abilities related to verbal, 
quantitative and non-verbal reasoning, and 
problem solving. 
Test Scores: Standard age scores 
Population: Primary battery (ECS to Grade 2), 

Multilevel edition (Grades 3-12) 
Administration Time: 90 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Culture Fair Intelligence Test 
Authors: R.B. Cattell and A.K.S. Cattell 
Publisher: Institute for Personality and Ability 

Testing 
Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book 
Description: Areas assessed include individual 

intelligence quotient. 
Test Scores: Standard score, intelligence 

quotients, raw scores and percentile ranks 

corresponding to standard intelligence 

quotient scores. 
Population: Ages 8 to adult. 
Administration Time: 1214 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports internal consistency 

and alternate form reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports construct and concrete 

validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B. 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 



Differential Aptitude Tests 

Authors: George K. Bennett, Harold G. 

Seashore and Alexander G. Wesman 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributor: Harcourt Canada 
Description: Areas assessed include verbal 

reasoning, numerical ability, abstract 

reasoning, clerical speed and accuracy, 

mechanical reasoning, space relations, 

spelling and language usage. 
Test Scores: Percentiles and stanines, means 

and standard deviations are provided for fall 

and spring administrations of the eight tests 

for Grades 8-12. 
Population: Grades 8-12. 
Administration Time: 181 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports split-half and 

alternate form reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports concurrent and 

predictive validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, 1989 
(OLSAT) 

Authors: Arthur S. Otis and Roger T. Lennon 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributors: Nelson Canada, The 

Testing Materials Resource Book. Harcourt 

Canada 
Description: Measures abstract reasoning and 

thinking ability; provides submeasures in 

verbal comprehension, verbal reasoning, 

pictorial reasoning, figural reasoning and 

quantitative reasoning. 
Test Scores: School ability index, percentile 

ranks, stanines 
Population: ECS to Grade 12 
Administration Time: 60-75 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing. 
Note: Can provide achievement versus ability 
comparisons when used jointly with the Stanford 
or Metropolitan Achievement tests. No reading 
is required of students in Grades 1-3. 



GT.300 



SOI Gifted Screening Form 

Authors: Mary Meeker and Robert Meeker. 
Publisher: SOI Systems 
Canadian Distributor: SOI Canada 
Description: Areas assessed include creativity, 

visual and auditory memory, visual 

perception and convergent production. 
Test Scores: Means, standard deviations and 

normal score equivalents for Grades 1-6 

and Grades 7 & 8 combined. 
Population: Grades 2-12. 
Administration Time: Approximately VA hours. 
Reliability: Manual does not report. 
Validity: Manual does not report. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

SOI Learning Abilities Test 

Authors: Mary Meeker and Robert Meeker. 

Publisher: SOI Systems 

Canadian Distributor: SOI Canada 

Description: Areas assessed include 24 factors 
relating to reading, arithmetic, creativity, 
cognition, memory, evaluation, convergent 
production and divergent production. 

Test Scores: Individual scores for each of the 
24 factors. Normal score equivalents, 
means and standard deviations are provided 
for Grades 1-6 and Grades 7 & 8 combined. 

Population: Grades 2-12. 

Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 
1 10 minutes. 

Reliability: Manual does not report. 

Validity: Manual does not report. 

Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, also 
suitable for group use. 



Intellectual 

Individually Administered Tests 

Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) 

Authors: J. A. Naglieri and J. P. Das 
Publisher: Riverside Publishing 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 



Description: A measure of intelligence based on 
the PASS theory of cognitive processing. 
Includes measures of planning, attention, 
simultaneous processing, successive 
processing, in addition to a full scale score. 
Test Scores: Standard Scores (Mean = 100), 

SD=15 
Population: Ages 5-17 
Administration Time: 60 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 
restricted test requiring professional 
qualifications. 

Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude, Third 
Edition, 1991 (DTLA-3) 

Author: Donald D. Hammill 
Publisher: PRO-ED, Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: Multi-Health Systems 
Inc., Mind Resources Inc., James Battle & 
Associates, Guidance Centre, The Testing 
Materials Resource Book, Psycan 
Description: Designed to measure general 
intelligence and discrete ability areas; 
provides submeasures in general ability 
(overall composite), verbal, nonverbal, 
attention, motor and theoretical composites. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentiles and 

age equivalents 
Population: 6-17 years, 11 months 
Administration Time: 50-120 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 
restricted test requiring professional 
qualifications. 

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 
1983 (Kaufman ABC) 

Authors: Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. 
Kaufman 

Publisher: American Guidance Service 

Canadian Distributor: Psycan 

Description: Assesses cognitive development 
grounded in the individual's style of solving 
problems and processing information, 
provides measures on mental processing 
(sequential and simultaneous processing) 
and achievement. 



GT.301 



Test Scores: IQ scores (mean = 100, SD = 15) 

Population: 2'/2-6!/2 years 

Administration Time: From 35 minutes (2-6 

years) to 85 minutes (7-1 27 2 years) 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 

restricted test requiring professional 

qualifications. 

Note: Special edition of the Kaufman-ABC is a 
non-verbal scale available for students who are 
deaf or hard of hearing, speech and language 
disordered or non-English speaking children, 4- 
12'/2 years. 

Raven's Progressive Matrices, 1983 (RPM) 

Author: J.C. Raven 

Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 

Canadian Distributors: The Testing Materials 

Resource Book, Harcourt Canada 
Description: Considered as a non-verbal 

assessment of perception and thinking skills. 
Test Scores: Total score, norms to convert to 

age equivalents 
Population: Standard form: 6-65 years, 

Coloured form: 5-1 1 years, Advanced 

form: 1 1 plus years 
Administration Time: 15 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale - Fourth 
Edition, 1986 (SB-IV) 

Authors: Robert L. Thorndike, Elizabeth P. 

Hagen and Jerome M. Sattler 
Publisher: Nelson Publishing 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 
Description: Measures cognitive abilities that 
provide an analysis of the pattern as well as 
the overall level of an individual's cognitive 
development; provides submeasures in 
verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, 
quantitative reasoning and short-term 
memory. 
Test Scores: IQ scores (Standard Age Scores) 
Population: 2 years to adult 



Administration Time: From about 30 minutes 

for preschoolers to 1 hour for older students 
Reliability and Validity: Very good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 
restricted test requiring professional 
qualifications. 

Test of Nonverbal Intelligence - Second 
Edition, 1990 (TONI-2) 

Authors: Linda Brown, Rita J. Sherbenov and 

Susan K. Johnsen 
Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: Mind Resources Inc, 

James Battle & Associates, Guidance 

Centre, The Testing Materials Resource 

Book 
Description: A language-free measure of 

abstract/figural problem solving. 
Test Scores: Total score, standard score and 

percentile rank 
Population: 5-85 years, 1 1 months 
Administration Time: 15-30 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 

restricted test requiring professional 

qualifications. 

Wechsler intelligence Scale for Children - 
Third Edition, 1991 (WISC-III) 

Author: David Wechsler 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributor: Harcourt Canada 
Description: A measure of a student's 

intellectual ability, provides submeasures in 

verbal and non-verbal reasoning skills. 
Test Scores: IQ scores (mean = 100, SD = 15), 

subtest scores (mean = 1 0) 
Population: 6-16 years, 11 months 
Administration Time: 50-75 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 

restricted test requiring professional 

qualifications. 



GT.302 



Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of 
Intelligence, Revised, 1989 (WPPSI-R) 

Author: David Wechsler 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributor: Harcourt Canada 
Description: A measure of a child's intellectual 

ability, provides submeasures in verbal and 

non-verbal reasoning skills. 
Test Scores: 1Q scores (mean = 100, SD = 15), 

subtest scores (mean = 10) 
Population: 2 years, 1 1 months to 7 years, 3 

months 
Administration time: 75 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level C, 

restricted test requiring professional 

qualifications. 

Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational 
Battery-Revised, 1991 (WJ-R); Tests of 
Cognitive Ability 

Authors: Richard W. Woodcock and M. Bonner 

Johnson 
Publisher: The Riverside Publishing Company 
Canadian Distributor: Nelson Canada 
Description: Measures of aptitude based on the 
Horn-Catell theory of fluid and crystallized 
intelligence. Includes measures of 
comprehension, knowledge, fluid reasoning, 
visual processing, auditory processing, 
processing speed short-term memory and 
long-term retrieval. 
Test Scores: Cluster scores, average age scores, 

percentile ranks 
Population: 2-90 years 
Administration Time: 30^0 minutes for the 
Standard battery, an additional 40 minutes 
for the Supplemental battery 
Reliability and Validity: Good to excellent 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, also 
suitable for group use. 



Language 

Individually Administered Tests 

Clinical Evaluation of Language Functions, 
Revised (CELF-R) 

Authors: E. Semel, E.H. Wiig, W. Secord 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributor: Harcourt Canada 
Description: Eleven categories verbal test 
measuring language processing and 
production, including phrase and sentence 
imitation, phrase completion, serial recall, 
phoneme recall production, abstraction, 
formulation of attributes, syntax and 
morphology, semantics, memory, and word 
finding and retrieval. 
Test Scores: Standard scores, percentile ranks 

and age equivalents 
Population: ECS to Grade 12 
Administration Time: 1-2 hours 
Reliability and Validity: Good to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Revised, 
1981 (PPVT-R) 

Authors: L. M. Dunn and L. M. Dunn 
Publisher: American Guidance Services 
Canadian Distributor: Psycan 
Description: Measures receptive (hearing) 

vocabulary. Two equivalent forms. 
Test Scores: Percentile ranks, stanines and age 

equivalent scores 
Population: 2.6-40 years 
Administration Time: 10-20 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to very good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing. 

Test of Language Development, 1988 (TOLD-2) 

Authors: P. L. Newcomer and D. D. Hammill 
Publisher: PRO-ED Inc. 
Canadian Distributors: Multi-Health Systems 
Inc., The Testing Materials Resource Book 



GT.303 



Description: Seven subtests measure spoken 
language components: picture vocabulary, 
oral vocabulary, grammatical understanding, 
sentence imitation, grammatical completion, 
word articulation, word discrimination. 

Test Scores: Standard scores, percentiles, age 
equivalents, quotients 

Population: 4-8 years, 1 1 months 

Administration Time: Untimed; approximately 
40 minutes 

Reliability and Validity: Good 

Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 

The Word Test — Elementary-Revised, 1990 

Authors: C. Jorgensen, M. Barrett, R. Huisingh 

and L. Zachman 
Publisher: Linguisystems Inc. 
Canadian Distributor: None 
Description: Orally assesses students' 

expressive vocabulary and understanding of 
semantics in six contexts: associations, 
synonyms, semantic absurdities, antonyms, 
definitions and multiple definitions. 
Test Scores: Age equivalents, percentile ranks 

and standard scores 
Population: 7-1 1 years 
Administration Time: Untimed, 30 minutes 
Reliability and Validity: Moderate to good 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing. 



Thinking Skills 

Cornell Critical Thinking Test 
Levels X and Z 

Authors: Robert H. Ennis and Jason Millman 

Publisher: Critical Thinking Project 

Canadian Distributor: Brijan Resources Ltd. 

Description: Areas assessed include critical 
thinking, deduction, assumptions, reliability 
of observations, reliability of authorities, 
generalizations, hypotheses, theories, 
ambiguity vagueness, and specificity and 
relevance. 

Test Scores: Means, standard deviations, 

percentile rank equivalents and total score. 



Population: Level X — ages 14 and above; 

Level Z — higher ability secondary students 

and above. 
Administration Time: 50 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports Kuder-Richardson 

reliability and Spearman-Brown reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports construct and 

concurrent validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 

Measure of Questioning Skills 

Authors: Garnet Millar and Ralph Himsl 

Publisher: Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. 

Canadian Distributor: None. 

Description: The Measure of Questioning Skills 
is a liberating tool assessing both the 
quantity and quality of student questions in 
order to help educators expand their 
students' thinking skills. 

Test Scores: Norms are provided for males and 
females. 

Population: Grades 3-10 inclusive 

Administration Time: 30 minutes 

Administrative Considerations: Level A, no 
formal training in testing is required. 

Ross Test of Higher Cognitive Processes 

Authors: John D. Ross and Catherine M. Ross 

Publisher: Academic Therapy Publications 

Canadian Distributor: The Testing Materials 
Resource Book 

Description: Areas assessed include analogies, 
deductive reasoning, missing premises, 
abstract relations, sequential synthesis, 
questioning strategies, analysis of relevant 
and irrelevant information, and analysis of 
attributes. 

Test Scores: Raw scores for each of the eight 
sections and a total score and percentile 
norms are provided for gifted and non-gifted 
students. 

Population: Grades 4-6. 

Administration Time: 105 minutes. 

Reliability: Manual reports test-retest and split- 
half reliability. 

Validity: Manual reports construct validity. 



GT.304 



Administrative Considerations: Level B, 
requires formal training in testing, also 
suitable for group use. 

Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal 

Authors: Woodwin Watson and Edward Glaser 
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation 
Canadian Distributor: Harcourt Canada 
Description: Areas assessed include inference, 

recognition of assumptions, deduction, 

interpretation and evaluation of arguments. 
Test Scores: Raw score, percentile rank and 

stanine rank. 
Population: Grades 9-adult. 
Administration Time: 40 minutes. 
Reliability: Manual reports split-half reliability. 
Validity: Manual reports content, concurrent 

and construct validity. 
Administrative Considerations: Level B, 

requires formal training in testing, also 

suitable for group use. 



GT.305 



Standards of Competence: Level of Tests and Qualifications 



159 



Levels 


Minimum Qualifications 


Selected Examples 


Level A Tests 

No formal training in testing 
required 


>■ Four years teacher education inclusive of 

a Bachelor's degree 
>- Experience working within school 

systems (as a teacher and/or consultant) 
>■ Familiarity with topic 
>- Able to follow administration procedures 

set out in manual 
>■ Informal training; e.g.. inservice in the 

use of a particular instrument 


>- Alberta Achievement Tests 
>- Gates-McGinitie Reading Tests 
>- Metropolitan Readiness Tests 
>- Alberta Diagnostic 

Reading/Mathematics Tests 
>■ Teacher Alert System 
>• Stanford Diagnostic 

Mathematics/Reading Tests 
s* Canadian Tests of Basic Skills 
*- Informal reading/mathematics/ 

spelling inventories 


Level B Tests 

Requires formal training in 
testing 


>■ Four years teacher education inclusive of 

a Bachelor's degree 
>- Experience working within school 

systems (as a teacher and/or consultant) 
>■ Senior undergraduate or graduate course 

work in test principles (reliability, 

validity, test construction, norm groups, 

types of scores), administration and 

interpretation 
>■ Training in specific area related to test 
>■ Experience administering and 

interpreting test 


>■ Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 
revised 

»• Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests 

>- Tests of Language 
Development II 

>- Detroit Test of Learning Aptitude 

>- Wechsler Individual Achievement 
Test 

>■ Woodcock-Johnson Psycho- 
educational Battery, revised 
Achievement (Part II) 


Level C Tests 

Restricted tests requiring 
professional qualifications 


>- Four years teacher education inclusive of 

a Bachelor's degree 
>• Experience working within school 

systems (as a teacher and/or consultant) 
>■ Recognized Master's degree with a major 

in special education or educational 

psychology, including 

• graduate course work in test 
principles (reliability, validity, test 
construction, norm groups, types of 
scores), and 

• graduate course work in 
administering and interpreting 
individual tests 

>• Fulfill any additional requirements as 
stipulated by the test publisher as being 
necessary of desirable for administration 
of each particular test instrument. 

// is expected that individuals administering 
and interpreting Level C tests will be eligible 
for registration as a Chartered Psychologist 
with the Psychologists Association of 
Alberta. 


*► Intelligence Scales (WISC-III. 
WAIS-R. WPPSI-R, Stanford 
Binet IV, K-ABC) 

> Personality Tests (High School 
Personality Questionnaire, 
Personality Inventory for Children, 
projective instruments) 

>■ Self-esteem inventories 

>- Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test 

>• Depression inventories 

>* ADD inventories 

>■ Torrance Tests of Creative 
Thinking 

>■ Woodcock-Johnson Psycho- 
educational Battery, revised. 
Cognitive Ability (Part I) 



GT.306 



Distributors 



Brijan Resources Ltd. 
822 Burton Loop N.W. 
Edmonton, AB T6R 2J2 
Telephone: 1-800-567-1147 
or (780) 988-65 16 
Fax: 1-877^30-8305 

Curriculum Associates Inc. 
Alberta Distributor: 
Virginia Wood 
1408 Crescent Road N.W. 
Calgary, AB T2M4B1 
Telephone: (403)282-2441 
Fax: (403)282-1409 

Educational Assessment Service, Inc. 

W6050 Apple Road 

Watertown, WI 53098 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: 1-800-795-7466 

Fax: (920)262-6622 



Learning Resources Distributing Centre 

(LRDC) 

12360 -142 St. N.W. 

Edmonton, AB T5L4X9 

Telephone: (780) 427-5775 

Fax: (780)422-9750 

Web site: http://www.lrdc.edc.gov.ab.ca/ 

LinguiSystems, Inc. 

3 100 -4th Ave. 

East Moline, IL 61244-9700 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: 1-800-776^1332 

or (309) 755-2300 

Fax: 1-800-577-^555 or (309) 755-2377 

Web site: http://www.linguisystems.com 

Mind Resources Inc. 
P.O.Box 126 
Kitchener, ON N2G 3W9 
Telephone: (519)895-0330 



Guidance Centre 

712 Gordon Baker Road 

Toronto, ON M2H 3R7 

Telephone: 1-800-668-6247 

Fax: (416)502-1101 

Web site: http://www.utoronto.ca/guidance/ 

Harcourt Canada 

55 Horner Ave. 

Toronto, ON M8Z 4X6 

Telephone: 1-800-387-7278 

Fax: 1-800-665-7307 

Web site: http://www.harcourtcanada.com 

James Battle & Associates, Ltd. 
708, 10240 -124 St. 
Edmonton, AB T5N 3W6 
Telephone: (780)488-1362 



Multi-Health Systems Inc. (MHS Inc.) 
3770 Victoria Park Ave. 
Toronto, ON M2H 3M6 
Telephone: 1-800-268-6011 
Fax: (416)492-3343 

Nelson Canada (now ITP Nelson) 
1 120 Birchmount Road 
Scarborough, ON M1K5G4 
Telephone: 1-800-268-2222 
Fax: 1-800-430-4445 

Psycan Corporation 
#12, 120 West Beaver Creek Road 
Richmond Hill, ON L4B 1L2 
Telephone: 1-800-263-3558 
Fax: (905)731-5029 



GT.307 



Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. 

480 Meyer Road 

Bensenville, IL 60106-1617 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (630)766-7150 

Fax: (630)766-8054 

Web site: http://www.ststesting.com/ 



The Testing Materials Resource Book 

(M. D. Angus & Associates Inc.) 

2 nd Floor, 2639 Kingsway Ave. 

Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 1T5 

Telephone: (604)464-7919 

Fax: (604)941-1705 

Web site: http://www.psychtest.com/ 



SOI Canada 
(Ms. Eva Raycraft) 
3608 West 38 th Ave. 
Vancouver, B.C. V6N 2Y2 
Telephone: (604)266-1981 
Fax: (609)276-1976 



GT.308 



SECTION 11: SUPPORT NETWORKS 



Alberta Associations for Bright Children 
(AABC) 

The Bright Site 

Room 1280,6240-113 St. 

Edmonton, AB T6H 3L2 

Telephone: (780) 422-0362 

Toll free in Alberta: 310-0000 and ask for 

422-0362 

Fax: (780)413-1631 

Web site: 

http://www.freenet.edmonton.ab.ca/aabc/ 

index.html 

Alberta Teachers' Association 

Gifted and Talented Education Council 

(GTEC) 

The Alberta Teachers' Association 

11010- 142 St. N.W. 

Edmonton, AB T5N 2R1 

Telephone: (780) 447-9400 

Fax: (780)455-6481 

Web site: http://www.gtecouncil.com/ 

Association for the Gifted 

Council for Exceptional Children 

1920 Association Drive 

Reston, VA 22091 

Telephone: 1-888-232-7733 

or (703) 620-3660 

Fax: (703)264-9494 

Web site: http://coehp.idbsu.edu/tag/ 



Centre for Gifted Education 

170 Education Block 
University of Calgary 
2500 University Dr. N.W. 
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 
Telephone: (403) 220-7799 
Fax: (403)210-2068 
Web site: 
http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~gifteduc/ 

National Association for Gifted Children 

Suite 550, 1707 L St. N.W. 
Washington. DC 20036 
Telephone: (202) 785—4268 
Website: http://www.nagc.org/ 

The National Research Center on the 
Gifted and Talented 

The University of Connecticut 

362 Fairfield Rd., U-7 

Storrs, CT 06269-2007 

Telephone: (860) 486-4676 

Fax: (860)486-2900 

Web site: http://www.ucc.uconn.edu/ 

~ wwwgt/nrc gt . htm 1 

World Council for Gifted and Talented 
Children, Inc. 

18401 Hiawatha St. 

Northridge, CA 91326 

U.S.A. 

Telephone: (818)368-7501 

Fax: (818)368-2163 

Web site: http://www.worldgifted.org/ 



GT.309 



SECTION 12: ENDNOTE REFERENCES 



Introduction 



Adapted from Position paper of the gifted 
and talented education council of the 
Alberta Teachers' Association (p. 5), by 
The Alberta Teachers* Association Gifted 
and Talented Education Council, 1994, 
Edmonton, AB: The Alberta Teachers' 
Association Gifted and Talented Education 
Council. Adapted with permission. 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 6), Volume 1 of The 
Programming for giftedness series, by D. J. 
Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, Sarasota, 
FL: Center for Creative Learning, Inc. 



From "A Triarchic view of giftedness: 
theory and practice," by R. J. Sternberg, 
1997, in N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (eds.). 



nd 



Handbook of gifted education (2 n edition) 
(pp. 43, 44), Needham Heights, MA: Allyn 
and Bacon. Reprinted with permission from 
Allyn & Bacon. 



Section 3 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 64), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 



Section 1 



From A Process approach to planning for 
contemporary programming (pp. 21, 22, 
23), Volume II of The Programming for 
Giftedness series, by D. J. Treffinger & 
M. R. Sortore, 1992, Sarasota, FL: Center 
for Creative Learning, Inc. Reproduced 
with permission. 



Section 2 



From Talent identification and 
development in education (TIDE) (p. 14), 
by J. F. Feldhusen, 1999, West Lafayette, 
IN: Star Educational Services. Reprinted 
with permission. 

From Multiple intelligences in the classroom 
(pp. 2-3) by T. Armstrong, 1994, 
Alexandria, VA: Association for 
Supervision and Curriculum Development. 
Copyright © 1994 ASCD. Reprinted by 
permission. All rights reserved. 



10 



Ibid., p. 71. 

Ibid., pp. 64-65. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (p. 14), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 



GT.310 



Adapted from Towards a new paradigm for 
identifying talent potential (pp. 49-51), by 
M. M. Frasier & A. H. Passow, 1994, 
Storrs, CT: The National Research Center 
on the Gifted and Talented, University of 
Connecticut. Research for the original 
report was supported under the Javits Act 
Program (Grant No. R206R00001) as 
administered by the Office of Educational 
Research and Improvement, U.S. 
Department of Education. Grantees 
undertaking such projects are encouraged 
to express freely their professional 
judgement. This report, therefore, does not 
necessarily represent positions or policies 
of the Government, and no official 
endorsement should be inferred. This 
portion of the original document has been 
adapted with the permission of The 
National Research Center on the Gifted and 
Talented. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education. Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (p. 10), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 

From Curriculum guides for the gifted (art, 
science, social science, language arts, 
foreign language, mathematics and music), 
by M. N. Meeker, 1979, Sacramento, CA: 
California Department of Education. 
Reprinted with permission of the author. 

From Autonomous learner model: 
optimizing ability (revised, expanded and 
updated edition) (pp. 17-18), by G. T. 
Berts & J. K. Kercher, 1999, Greeley, CO: 
Autonomous Learning Publications and 
Specialists. Reprinted with permission. 

From Adventures in thinking: creative 
thinking and co-operative talk in small 
groups (pp. 1, 5-6), by J. Dalton, 1985, 
Melbourne, Australia: Thomas Nelson 
Australia. Reproduced with permission of 
the author. 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (pp. 53, 55), by Department 
of Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 

From Young gifted children (pp. 16, 17, 18, 
19), by L. Mares, 1991, Cheltenham, 
Australia: Hawker Brownlow Education. 
Reprinted with permission. 

From Autonomous learner model: 
optimizing ability (revised, expanded and 
updated edition) (pp. 32-34), by G. T. 
Berts & J. K. Kercher, 1999, Greeley. CO: 
Autonomous Learning Publications and 
Specialists. Reprinted with permission. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education. Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (p. 47), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 

From Coping for capable kids, by L. M. 
Cohen & E. Frydenberg, 1993, 
Cheltenham, Australia: Hawker Brownlow 
Education. Reprinted with permission. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (p. 48), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 

Ibid., p. 48. 

Ibid., p. 24. 



GT.311 



24 



25 



Reprinted from "Procedures for identifying 
intellectual potential in the gifted: a 
perspective on alternative 'metaphors of 
mind,'" by R. J. Sternberg, 1993, in K. A. 
Heller, F. J. Monks & A. H. Passow (eds.), 
International handbook of research and 
development of giftedness and talent 
(p. 187), Oxford, GB: Pergamon Press, 
with permission from Elsevier Science. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (p. 25), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 



32 



33 



34 



Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 66), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 

Ibid., pp. 66-67. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (p. 24), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 



27 



28 



20 



30 



31 



Ibid., p. 25. 

From "The Highly gifted ,, (p. 117), by L. 
K. Silverman, 1998, in J. VanTassel-Baska 
(ed.), Excellence in educating the gifted 
(third edition), Denver, CO: Love 
Publishing Co. Reprinted with permission. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book — education of 
gifted students (p. 25), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 

Ibid., p. 25. 

Ibid., p. 26. 

From Schools for talent development: a 
practical plan for total school improvement 
(pp. 106-107), by J. S. Renzulli, 1994, 
Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning 
Press, Inc. Reprinted with permission. 



35 



36 



37 



38 



39 



40 



41 



42 



Ibid., p. 24. 

Ibid., p. 24. 

Ibid., p. 24. 

Ibid., p. 27. 

Ibid., pp. 27-28. 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 67), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 

From Teaching models in education of the 
gifted (second edition) (pp. 7-8), by C. J. 
Maker & A. B. Nielson, 1995, Austin, TX: 
PRO-ED, Inc. Reproduced with 
permission. 

Adapted from Academic challenge: a 
programming guide (teacher guide, K-12) 
(p. 6-40), by Resource Development 
Services, Edmonton Public Schools, 1988, 
Edmonton, AB: Edmonton Public Schools. 
Adapted with permission. 



GT.312 



43 



44 



45 



46 



47 



48 



49 



50 



From Gifted education: a resource guide 
for teachers (p. 31), by Special Education 
Branch, Ministry of Education, Province of 
British Columbia, 1995, Victoria, BC: 
Ministry of Education, Province of British 
Columbia. Reprinted with permission. 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 67), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 

Ibid., pp. 68-69. 

From Gifted education: a resource guide 
for teachers (pp. 12-13), by the Special 
Education Branch of the Ministry of 
Education, 1995, Victoria, BC: Province 
of British Columbia, Ministry of 
Education. Reprinted with permission. 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 69), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 

From "Introducing parents to portfolio 
assessment — a collaborative effort toward 
authentic assessment," by B. Kingore, 
1 995, Gifted Child Today Magazine, 1 8(4), 
p. 12. Reprinted with permission of 
Prufrock Press, P.O. Box 8813, Waco, TX, 
76714, U.S.A., 1-800-998-2208, 
http://www.prufrock.com. 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 70), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 

Ibid., p. 69. 



51 From What educators and parents need to 
know about . . . student portfolios 
(pamphlet), by K. Kettle (ed.), 1994, Storrs, 
CT: National Research Center on the 
Gifted and Talented. Research for the 
original pamphlet was supported under the 
Javits Act Program (Grant No. 
R206R00001) as administered by the 
Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement, U.S. Department of 
Education. Grantees undertaking such 
projects are encouraged to express freely 
their professional judgement. This 
pamphlet, therefore, does not necessarily 
represent positions or policies of the 
Government, and no official endorsement 
should be inferred. This portion of the 
original pamphlet has been reproduced with 
the permission of The National Research 
Center on the Gifted and Talented. 



^2 



53 



54 



From Eight ways of teaching: the artistry 
of teaching with multiple intelligences (3 rd 
edition) (p. 14), by David Lazear. ©1991, 
1999 by SkyLight Training and Publishing, 
Inc. Reprinted by permission of SkyLight 
Professional Development, Arlington 
Heights, IL. Web site: 
http://www.skylightedu.com. 

From "Introducing parents to portfolio 
assessment — a collaborative effort toward 
authentic assessment," by B. Kingore, 
1 995, Gifted Child Today Magazine, 1 8(4), 
pp. 12-13. Reprinted with permission of 
Prufrock Press, P.O. Box 8813, Waco, TX, 
76714, U.S.A., 1-800-998-2208, 
http://www.prufrock.com. 

Reproduced by permission from 
Programming for giftedness — a 
contemporary view (p. 70), Volume I of 
The Programming for giftedness series, by 
D. J. Treffinger & M. R. Sortore, 1992, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 



GT.313 



55 



56 



57 



58 



59 



60 



61 



From "Teachers as talent scouts," by J. S. 
Renzulli, 1994/95, Educational Leadership, 
52(4), p. 76. Used by permission of the 
Association for Supervision and 
Curriculum Development. Copyright © 
1994/95 by ASCD. All rights reserved. 

Adapted from Schools for talent 
development: a practical plan for total 
school improvement (p. 131), by J. S. 
Renzulli, 1994, Mansfield Center, CT: 
Creative Learning Press, Inc. Adapted with 
permission. 

From Schools for talent development: a 
practical plan for total school improvement 
(p. 101), by J. S. Renzulli, 1994, Mansfield 
Center, CT: Creative Learning Press, Inc. 
Reprinted with permission. 

Entire page from Position paper of the 
gifted and talented education council of the 
Alberta Teachers' Association (p. 4), by 
The Alberta Teachers' Association Gifted 
and Talented Education Council, 1994, 
Edmonton, AB: The Alberta Teachers' 
Association Gifted and Talented Education 
Council. Reprinted with permission. 

Adapted from "Individualized education 
program plans for gifted, talented, and 
creative students," by D. J. Treffinger, 
1979, in S. M. Butterfield et al., 
Developing IEPSfor the gifted/talented 
(pp. 51-58), Los Angeles, CA: 
National/State Leadership Training 
Institute on the Gifted and the Talented. 
Adapted with permission from the author. 

From "Good news/bad news: getting the 
most from a parent-teacher interview," by 
S. Adams, The Edmonton Journal, October 
12, 1997, page G3. Originally printed in 
the Calgary Herald. Reproduced with 
permission from the Calgary Herald. 

Ibid., page G3. 



62 



63 



64 



65 



66 



From Education of the gifted: programs 
and perspectives (p. 28), by J. F. Smutny & 
R. H. Blocksom, 1990, Bloomington, IN: 
Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. 
©Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. 
Reproduced with permission. 

Form from Gifted education: a resource 
guide for teachers (p. 47), by Special 
Education Branch, Ministry of Education, 
Province of British Columbia, 1995, 
Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education, 
Province of British Columbia. Used with 
permission. 

Ibid., p. 48. 

Ibid., p. 47. 

Ibid., p. 48. 



From Talents in two places: case studies of 
high ability students with learning 
disabilities who have achieved (p. 16), by 
S. M. Reis, T. W. Neu & J. M. McGuire, 
1995, Storrs, CT: The National Research 
Center on the Gifted and Talented, The 
University of Connecticut. Research for 
the original report was supported under the 
Javits Act Program (Grant No. 
R206R00001) as administered by the 
Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement, U.S. Department of 
Education. Grantees undertaking such 
projects are encouraged to express freely 
their professional judgement. This report, 
therefore, does not necessarily represent 
positions or policies of the Government, 
and no official endorsement should be 
inferred. This portion of the original 
document has been reproduced with the 
permission of The National Research 
Center on the Gifted and Talented. 

Some points taken from Crossover 
children: a sourcebook for helping 
children who are gifted and learning 
disabled (2 nd edition), by M. Bireley, 1995, 
p. 6. Copyright 1995 by The Council for 
Exceptional Children. Reprinted with 
permission. 



GT.314 



68 Ibid., p. 17. 
Ibid., p. 5. 

From The Prism metaphor: paradigm for 
reversing underachievement (p. 35), by 
S. M. Baum, J. S. Renzulli & T. Hebert, 
1995, Storrs, CT: The National Research 
Center on the Gifted and Talented, 
University of Connecticut. Research for 
the original report was supported under the 
Javits Act Program (Grant No. 
R206R00001) as administered by the 
Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement, U.S. Department of 
Education. Grantees undertaking such 
projects are encouraged to express freely 
their professional judgement. This report, 
therefore, does not necessarily represent 
positions or policies of the Government, 
and no official endorsement should be 
inferred. This portion of the original 
document has been adapted with the 
permission of The National Research 
Center on the Gifted and Talented. 



71 



70 



From Square pegs in round holes — these 
kids don t fit: high ability students with 
behavioral problems (p. 19), by B. D. Reid 
& M. D. McGuire, 1995, Storrs, CT: The 
National Research Center on the Gifted and 
Talented, University of Connecticut. 
Research for the original report was 
supported under the Javits Act Program 
(Grant No. R206R00001) as administered 
by the Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement, U.S. Department of 
Education. Grantees undertaking such 
projects are encouraged to express freely 
their professional judgement. This report, 
therefore, does not necessarily represent 
positions or policies of the Government, 
and no official endorsement should be 
inferred. This portion of the original 
document has been adapted with the 
permission of The National Research 
Center on the Gifted and Talented. 



72 



From "Educational programs for 
minority/disadvantaged gifted students," by 
A. H. Passow, 1986, in L. Kanevsky (ed.), 
Issues in gifted education: a collection of 
readings (pp. 152-154), San Diego, CA: 
San Diego City Schools. Reproduced with 
permission from San Diego City Schools 
Gifted and Talented Education Department. 

From "High-IQ children, extreme precocity, 
and savant syndrome," by M. J. Morelock & 
D. H. Feldman, 1997, in N. Colangelo & 
G. A. Davis, Handbook of gifted education 
(2 nd edition) (pp. 446, 450, 45 1 ), Needham 
Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Reprinted 
with permission from Allyn &Bacon. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (pp. 28-29), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 



Section 4 



73 



74 



75 



76 



Based on "Measuring musical giftedness," 
by Carol P. Richardson, 1990, Music 
Educators Journal, 76(7), pp. 41, 44. 
Copyright © 1990 by MENC. Used with 
permission. 

From Guidelines for the identification of 
artistically gifted and talented students 
(revised) (pp. 3-4), by A. Elam, M. 
Goodwin & A. Moore, 1988, Columbia, 
SC: South Carolina State Department of 
Education. Reprinted with permission. 

From "Identifying and providing for 
musically gifted young children," by M. F. 
Marek-Schroer & N. A. Schroer, 1993, 
Roeper Review, 16(1), p. 34. Reproduced 
with permission of Roeper Review, P.O. 
Box 329, Bloomfield Hills, MI, 48303, 
U.S.A., (248) 203-7320. 



GT.315 



77 



78 



79 



80 



82 



Based on "Measuring musical giftedness," 
by Carol P. Richardson, 1990, Music 
Educators Journal, 76(7). p. 41 . Copyright 
© 1990 by MENC. Used with permission. 

From Dancing to learn: dance as a strategy 
in the primary school curriculum (pp. 74, 
75, 76, 79), by M. Lowden, 1989, London, 
GB: Falmer Press. Reprinted with 
permission. 

From Creative dance for all ages: a 
conceptual approach (p. 342), by A. G. 
Gilbert, 1992, Reston, VA: National 
Dance Association. This material is 
reprinted from Creative Dance for All 
Ages, by Anne Green Gilbert, (386 pages) 
with permission of the National Dance 
Association (NDA), an association of the 
American Alliance for Health, Physical 
Education, Recreation and Dance 
(AAHPERD). The original source may be 
purchased from AAHPERD, P.O. Box 385, 
Oxon Hill, MD, 20750-0385; or phone 
1-800-321-0789. 

From Art in the classroom: an integrated 
approach to teaching art in Canadian 
elementary and middle schools (p. 69), by 
1. R. Naested, 1998, Toronto, ON: 
Harcourt Brace & Company. Copyright © 
1998 Harcourt Brace & Company, Canada, 
Ltd. All rights reserved. Reprinted by 
permission of Harcourt Canada, Ltd. 

Ibid., p. 69. 

From "More than meets the eye," by G. 
Clark & E. Zimmerman, 1987, Gifted Child 
Today, September/October, p. 42. 
Reprinted with permission of Prufrock 
Press, P.O. Box 8813, Waco, TX, 76714, 
U.S.A., 1-800-998-2208, 
http://www.prufrock.com. 



Section 5 



8.1 



84 



85 



86 



87 



89 



From "Super Saturday: design and 
implementation of Purdue's special 
program for gifted children," by J. F. 
Feldhusen & A. R. Wyman, 1980, Gifted 
Child Quarterly, 24(1), p. 15. Reprinted 
with permission of the author. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria. Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (p. 30) by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia. Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 

From "The Integrative education model," 
by B. Clark, 1986, in J. S. Renzulli (ed./ 
Systems and models for developing 
programs for the gifted and talented (pp. 
67-68), Mansfield Center, CT: Creative 
Learning Press, Inc. Reprinted with 
permission. 

From Challenging the gifted in the regular 
classroom: facilitator 's guide (pp. 53-56), 
by C. A. Tomlinson & L. J. Kiernan, 1994, 
Alexandria, VA: Association for 
Supervision and Curriculum Development. 
Copyright © 1994 ASCD. Reprinted by 
permission. All rights reserved. 

Adapted from Teaching Gifted Kids in the 
Regular Classroom (pp. 67-69), by Susan 
Winebrenner, ©1992. Used with 
permission from Free Spirit Publishing, 
Minneapolis, MN: WAvw.freespirit.com. 

Ibid., p. 80. 

From Smart teaching: nurturing talent in 
the classroom and beyond (pp. 36-38), by 
J. A. Leroux & E. McMillan, 1993, 
Markham, ON: Pembroke Publishers, 
www.pembrokepublishers.com. 
©Pembroke Publishers. Reproduced with 
permission. 



GT.316 



90 



91 



92 



93 



94 



95 



96 



From REACH Program, Rogers Public 
Schools website at 

[http://icu.nwsc.kl2.ar.us/schools/reach/ 
oldver/Creativity.html]. Used with the 
permission of Rogers Public Schools. 

Adapted from Creative problem solving: 
an introduction (revised edition) (pp. 16- 
18), by D. J. Treffinger, S. G. Isaksen & K. 
B. Dorval, 1994, Sarasota, FL: Center for 
Creative Learning. Adapted with 
permission. 

Reproduced by permission from Practice 
problems for creative problem solving (2 n 
edition) (p. 24), by D. J. Treffinger, 1991, 
Sarasota, FL: Center for Creative 
Learning, Inc. 

From Change for children: ideas and 
activities for individualizing learning 
(revised edition) (pp. 169-170), by S. N. 
Kaplan, J. A. B. Kaplan, S. K. Madsen & 
B.T.Gould. ©1980 by Scott Foresman 
and Company. Published by Good Year 
Books, an imprint of Pearson Learning. 
Used by permission. 

From "Independent study: a flexible tool 
for encouraging academic and personal 
growth," by C. A. Tomlinson, 1993, Middle 
SchoolJournal, 25, pp. 78-80. 
Reproduced and adapted from the original 
article appearing in the September 1993 
Middle SchoolJournal. Permission 
granted by National Middle School 
Association. 

Ibid., pp. 81-82. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (p. 38) by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia, Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 



97 



98 



99 



100 



101 



102 



103 



Adapted from Teaching gifted kids in the 
regular classroom (p. 25), by Susan 
Winebrenner, ©1992. Used with 
permission from Free Spirit Publishing, 
Minneapolis, MN: www.freespirit.com. 

Ibid., p. 22. 

Adapted from Gifted education: a 
resource guide for teachers (pp. 17-18), by 
the Special Education Branch, Ministry of 
Education, Province of British Columbia, 
1995, Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education, 
Province of British Columbia. Adapted 
with permission. 

From "A Practical model for designing 
individual educational programs (IEPs) for 
gifted and talented students," by J. S. 
Renzulli & L. H. Smith, 1988, Gifted Child 
Today, 1 1(1)54, pp. 36-37. Reprinted with 
permission of Prufrock Press, P.O. Box 
8813, Waco, TX, 76714, U.S.A., 
1-800-998-2208, 
http://www.prufrock.com. 

From The Compactor by J. S. Renzulli & 
L. H. Smith, 1978, Mansfield Center, CT: 
Creative Learning Press Inc. Reprinted 
with permission. 

From "A Practical model for designing 
individual educational programs (IEPs) for 
gifted and talented students," by J. S. 
Renzulli & L. H. Smith, 1988, Gifted Child 
Today, 11(1)54, pp. 36-37. Reprinted with 
permission of Prufrock Press, P.O. Box 
8813, Waco, TX, 76714, U.S.A., 
1-800-998-2208, 
http://www.prufrock.com. 

From Curriculum compacting: the 
complete guide to modifying the regular 
curriculum for high ability students (pp. 
139-141), by S. M. Reis, D. E. Burns & J. 
S. Renzulli, 1992, Mansfield Center, CT: 
Creative Learning Press Inc. Reprinted 
with permission. 



GT.317 



104 



105 



106 



107 



HIS 



109 



Reprinted from "Mentoring and role 
modeling programs for the gifted," by R. 
Zorman, 1993, in K. A. Heller, F. J. Monks 
& A. H. Passow (eds.), International 
handbook of research and development of 
giftedness and talent (p. 728), Oxford, GB: 
Pergamon Press, with permission from 
Elsevier Science. 

From "Mentors provide personal 
coaching," by F.A. Kaufmann, 1988, Gifted 
Child Monthly, 9(1), pp. 2-3. Reproduced 
with permission from Rainbow Page, Inc. 
at web site 
[http://www.gifted-children.com]. 



no 



From Gifted education: a resource guide SECTION 6 

for teachers (p. 19), by the Special 

Education Branch, Ministry of Education, 
Province of British Columbia, 1995, 
Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education, 
Province of British Columbia. Reprinted 
with permission. 

Adapted from Tiered assignments: holistic 
pedagogy and assessment in 
accommodating student diversity, by R. 
Smith, 1996. Unpublished master's study, 
University of Portland. Adapted with 
permission. 



Adapted from "Differentiated curricula for 
the gifted/talented: a point of view," by A. 
H. Passow, 1982, in I. S. Sato (ed.), 
Curricula for the gifted: selected 
proceedings of the first national conference 
on curricula for the gifted/talented (pp. 
1-20), Los Angeles, CA: The 
National/State Leadership Training 
Institute on the Gifted and the Talented. 
Reprinted with the permission of the 
Ventura County Superintendent of Schools 
Office. 



Section 7 



in 



112 



From "Mentoring: a time-honored option 

for education of the gifted and talented," by 

D. R. Clasen & R. E. Clasen, 1997, in N. 

Colangelo & G. A. Davis (eds.), Handbook 

of Gifted Education (2 nd edition) (p. 225), m 

Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 

Reprinted with permission from Allyn & 

Bacon. 

Ibid., pp. 226-227. 



Adapted from "Table 1.5 — A guide to 
selecting curriculum modifications based 
on a student's behaviors," by L. S. 
Kanevsky, C. J. Maker, A. B. Nielson & J. 
A. Rogers, 1994, in C. J. Maker & A. B. 
Neilson, Curriculum development and 
teaching strategies for gifted learners 
(second edition) (pp. 25-27), 1996, Austin, 
TX: PRO-ED. Adapted with permission. 

Adapted from Blending gifted education 
with the total school program (second 
edition) (p. 40), by D. J. Treffinger, 1986, 
East Aurora, NY: D.O.K. Publishers. 
Adapted with the permission of the author. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (p. 58), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. 



114 



Ibid., p. 59. 



GT.318 



115 Reprinted with permission of the 

Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (p. 62), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. Adapted from 
A Handbook for identifying the 
gifted/talented (pp. 93-94), by J. Platow, 
1984, Los Angeles, C A: The 
National/State Leadership Training 
Institute on the Gifted and the Talented. 



120 



116 



119 



Ibid., p. 63. 



117 Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of gifted 
students (pp. 65-67), by Department of 
Education, State of Victoria, 1996, 
Melbourne, Australia: Department of 
Education, State of Victoria. Adapted from 
Education of the gifted and talented (pp. 
77, 86), by G. A. Davis & S. B. Rimm, 
1985, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. 

118 Adapted from an evaluation tool prepared 
by Charlotte Palmer, Pinellas Park 
Elementary School, Pinellas Park, Florida, 
which was based on an educational 
abstract: "What Human Beings Do When 
They Behave Intelligently and How They 
Can Become More So," by Arthur L. Costa, 
Professor of Education, California State 
University, Sacramento, California, 
December 20, 1992. Reproduced with 
permission from Charlotte Palmer. 



From Smart teaching: nurturing talent in 
the classroom and beyond (p. 19), by J. 
Leroux & E. McMillan, 1993, Markham, 
ON: Pembroke Publishers, 
www.pembrokepublishers.com. 
©Pembroke Publishers. Reproduced with 
permission. 



121 



122 



123 



Adapted from Academic challenge: a 
programming guide (p. 3-31), by Resource 
Development Services, Edmonton Public 
Schools, 1988, Edmonton, AB: Edmonton 
Public Schools. Adapted with permission. 

Adapted from 'interest Inventory for 
Young Students," by Resource 
Development Services, Edmonton Public 
Schools, n.d., Edmonton, AB: Edmonton 
Public Schools. Adapted with permission. 

Reprinted with permission of the 
Department of Education, Employment and 
Training, Victoria, Australia from Bright 
futures resource book: education of the 
gifted {p. 71), by Department of Education, 
State of Victoria, 1996, Melbourne, 
Australia: Department of Education, State 
of Victoria. 

From THE NEW READING TEACHER S 
BOOK OF LISTS (p. 220), by Edward Fry, 
Donna Fountoukidis & J. Polk. Copyright 
© 1985. Reprinted with permission of 
Prentice Hall Direct. 

Ibid., p. 221. 

From Gifted education: a resource guide 
for teachers (p. 47), by Special Education 
Branch, Ministry of Education, Province of 
British Columbia, 1995, Victoria, BC: 
Ministry of Education, Province of British 
Columbia. Reprinted with permission. 



126 From The Art of cognitive coaching: 

supervision for intelligent teaching — an in 
depth training syllabus (pp. R-36, R-37, 
R-38), by A. L. Costa & R. J. Garmston, 
revised 1987, Sacramento, CA: The 
Institute for Intelligent Behavior. 
Reprinted with the permission of A. L. 
Costa. Adapted from Teaching through 
modality strengths: concepts and practices 
(pp. 44^5), by W. B. Barbe & R. H. 
Swassing, 1979, Columbus, OH: 
Zaner-Bloser, Inc. Used with permission 
from Zaner-Bloser, Inc. 



124 



125 



GT.319 



127 



128 



129 



130 



131 



132 



133 



Adapted from Academic challenge: a 
programming guide (p. 3-35), by Resource 
Development Services, Edmonton Public 
Schools, 1988, Edmonton, AB: Edmonton 
Public Schools. Adapted with permission. 

From "Learning Channels Inventory," by 
Max Coderre (Sherwood Park). Used with 
permission from Teaching Today 
Magazine. Published and written by Max 
Coderre, Sherwood Park, AB. 

From "Empowering students with style," 
by R. R. Neely & D. Aim, 1993, Principal, 
72(4), p. 33. Copyright 1993 National 
Association of Elementary School 
Principals. All rights reserved. 

Adapted from "Modalities: some 
applications," by Resource Development 
Services, Edmonton Public Schools, n.d., 
Edmonton, AB: Edmonton Public Schools. 
Adapted with permission. 

From Partners during changing times: an 
information booklet for parents of children 
with special needs (p. 13), by Alberta 
Education, 1996, Edmonton, AB: Alberta 
Education. 

Adapted from Rainforth, B. & York-Barr, 
J. (1997), Collaborative teams for students 
with severe disabilities: integrating 
therapy and educational services (2nd 
edition) (p. 318), Baltimore, MD: Paul H. 
Brookes Publishing Co. Adapted with 
permission. 

From Gifted education: a resource guide 
for teachers (p. 48), by Special Education 
Branch, Ministry of Education, Province of 
British Columbia, 1995, Victoria, BC: 
Ministry of Education, Province of British 
Columbia. Reprinted with permission. 



134 



135 



136 



137 



138 



139 



141 



142 



From Crossover children: a sourcebook 
for helping children who are gifted and 
learning disabled (2 nd edition), by 
M. Bireley, 1995, pp. 5-6. Copyright 1995 
by The Council for Exceptional Children. 
Reprinted with permission. 

From Guidelines for the identification of 
artistically gifted and talented students (p. 
10), by A. Elam, M. Goodwin & A. Moore, 
1988, Columbia, SC: South Carolina State 
Department of Education. Reprinted with 
permission. 

From Guidelines for the identification of 
artistically gifted and talented students, by 
A. Elam. M. Goodwin & A. Moore, 1985, 
Columbia, SC: South Carolina State 
Department of Education. Reprinted with 
permission. 

From Guidelines for the identification of 
artistically gifted and talented students (p. 
17), by A. Elam, M. Goodwin & A. Moore, 
1988, Columbia, SC: South Carolina State 
Department of Education. Reprinted with 
permission. 

From Guidelines for the identification of 
artistically gifted and talented students (p. 
2-19), by A. Elam, M. Goodwin & A. 
Moore, 1985, Columbia, SC: South 
Carolina State Department of Education. 
Reprinted with permission. 



Ibid., pp. 4-17, 4-18. 
140 Ibid. 



Ibid., p. 2-16. 



Ibid., p. 2-10. 
143 Ibid. 



GT.320 



144 



145 



146 



147 



148 



From Creative dance for all ages: a 
conceptual approach (p. 5), by A. G. 
Gilbert, 1992, Reston, VA: National 
Dance Association. This material is 
reprinted from Creative Dance for All 
Ages, by Anne Green Gilbert, (386 pages) 
with permission of the National Dance 
Association (NDA), an association of the 
American Alliance for Health, Physical 
Education, Recreation and Dance 
(AAHPERD). The original source may be 
purchased from AAHPERD, P.O. Box 385. 
Oxon Hill, MD. 20750-0385; or phone 
1-800-321-0789. 

From "Presenting creative dance activities 
to children: guidelines for the nondancer," 
by T. Hankin, 1992, JOPERD, Journal of 
Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 
63(2), p. 24. This article is reprinted with 
permission from the Journal of Physical 
Education, Recreation and Dance, 
February 1992, p. 24. JOPERD is a 
publication of the American Alliance for 
Health, Physical Education, Recreation, 
and Dance, 1900 Association Drive, 
Reston, VA, 20191, U.S.A. 

From Learning, teaching and assessment in 
fine arts: a joint project for elementary 
and secondary teachers, by Calgary Board 
of Education & Calgary Catholic School 
Division, 1998, Calgary, AB: Calgary 
Board of Education & Calgary Catholic 
School Division. 

Adapted from Academic challenge: a 
programming guide (p. 6-52), by Resource 
Development Services, Edmonton Public 
Schools, 1988, Edmonton, AB: Edmonton 
Public Schools. Adapted with permission. 

Adapted from Teaching gifted kids in the 
regular classroom (p. 41 ), by Susan 
Winebrenner, ©1992. Used with 
permission from Free Spirit Publishing, 
Minneapolis, MN: www.freespirit.com. 



149 



150 



151 



From Smart teaching: nurturing talent in 
the classroom and beyond (pp. 83-86), by 
J. A. Leroux & E. McMillan, 1993, 
Markham, ON: Pembroke Publishers, 
www.pembrokepublishers.com. 
©Pembroke Publishers. Reproduced with 
permission. 

Adapted from Academic challenge: a 
programming guide (p. 4-78), by Resource 
Development Services, Edmonton Public 
Schools, 1988, Edmonton, AB: Edmonton 
Public Schools. Adapted with permission. 

From Smart teaching: nurturing talent in 
the classroom and beyond (p. 72), by J. A. 
Leroux & E. McMillan, 1993, Markham, 
ON: Pembroke Publishers, 
www.pembrokepublishers.com. 
©Pembroke Publishers. Reproduced with 
permission. 

Ibid., p. 73. 

Ibid., p. 74. 

Ibid., p. 76. 

Adapted from Teaching gifted kids in the 
regular classroom (p. 44), by Susan 
Winebrenner, ©1992. Used with 
permission from Free Spirit Publishing, 
Minneapolis, MN: www.freespirit.com. 

Ibid., p. 48. 

Ibid., p. 24. 

From The Compactor by J. S. Renzulli & 
L. H. Smith, 1978, Mansfield Center, CT: 
Creative Learning Press Inc. Reprinted 
with permission. 



Section 10 



152 



153 



154 



155 



156 



157 



158 



159 



From Standards for psycho-educational 
assessment (p. 13), by Alberta Education, 
1994, Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education. 



GT.321 



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